Monday, March 23, 2009

Human Nature in Islam


by Mohyuddin Hashimi

Physical and biological nature of man is, although, not the main concern of the Holy Qur’an, it does provide significant insight about man and his nature. A brief description of Islamic thought on the subject is mentioned below:

Islam does not presuppose any inherent wickedness of human nature. Any negative representation of man’s basic nature as a source of evil and wickedness is clearly rejected. According to Islam, the human being is born in the state of fitrah, the original inherent nature of the human being. At birth, the baby is totally innocent and is not responsible for the sin of his parents or any of his ancestors.

Environmental and other external influences keep on modifying his blueprint. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said:
“Every child is created in the state of fitrah, it is the parents, culture, and society that make him a Christian, a Jew, or a fire-worshipper.”
Islam is the first religion to declare man as the most superior of the creatures and the masterpiece of the Creator. According to Islam, man is potentially capable of rising higher than the angels, that is why Allah has commanded angels to bow down before Adam. But, at the same time, he is equally capable of sinking lower than the animals. The Holy Qur’an says:
"We have indeed created man in the best shap, then We reduced him (to be) the lowest of the low, except those who believe and do righteous deeds: for they shall have a reward unfailing." (95:4¬6)

These verses indicate that Allah has given man the purest and best nature while man’s duty is to preserve the pattern on which God has made him. However, when he neglects his duty and goes in the wrong way, he will be reduced to the lowest possible position.

The Holy Qur’an asserts that inclination and attraction towards faith and virtue and repulsion from disobedience and corruption exists in man’s nature.
“But God has endeared to you faith and has beautified it in your hearts and has made disbelief and lewdness and rebellion hateful to you.” (49:7)
To sum up the point, man comes into the world with a pure and wholesome nature. Whereas sin and corruption in human being are merely accidental and violation of his original nature. The role of prophets and the scriptures is just to help human nature to flow in its true channel and to guide human nature to its ultimate goal of eternal felicity. This Qur’anic theory of human nature also implies the fact that if man consciously decides to submit himself to the will of Allah, he experiences no conflict in his personality. (10:62) while, on the other hand, if he misuses his freedom of choice by denying God and not submitting to His will, would be in a state of inner conflict and his personality gets disintegrated.

Man has been given the freedom of choice to do good or evil. This freewill gives him independence of intention, choice and action in various situations of moral conflict. Man is the only creature in this universe who has been given choice and discretion which accompany him through his life span. (The Qur’an, 15:36)
Man has also been granted potentialities to acquire knowledge of how everything else in the universe functions as well as the knowledge required for his felicity. (al-Qur’an, 2:33). This knowledge along with the faculty of reason and intellect, are man’s primary guide that distinguishes him from other animals and help him recognize the path of his ultimate felicity.

Man’s hopes are often related to various comforts and joys of physical and worldly kind while Islam does not deprive him of these. Islam, however, redirects him from false and transitory joys and values to real values and everlasting joys. The Holy Qur’an says:
“This life of the world is just a pastime and a game. And, indeed, the home of the Hereafter is the real life, if they know.” (29:64)

Since the topic of human nature and personality development is the central issue in the sufi thought, it would be unfair to avoid mentioning their views in this regard. According to the Sufi theory, man is the microcosm and a copy made in the image of God. Since man cannot know what is not in him, he could not know God and all the mysteries of the universe unless he founds them in himself. So God-consciousness and self-consciousness are interdependent and a true knowledge of one’s own self necessarily leads to the knowledge of God. According to Ibn Arabi, God’s breathing of His spirit into man, as described by the Holy Qur’an, (15:28-29) is of immense metaphysical significance. He believes that man is the perfect manifestation of divine attributes and names. (Nasr, Sayyed Hossain. (1988). Three Muslim Sages. Lahore: Sohail Academy.) He also refers to the saying of the Prophet (PBUH): “God created Adam in His form.” This conception of human nature reveals that man is inherited with unlimited capacity of development and perfection.
After mentioning the position of human nature in its basic and the pure form, it is necessary to point out how man’s nature gets corrupted.

The Unrefined Human Nature

Although man has been created with a natural tendency towards the righteousness, he (excluding the prophets) cannot be free from all sins and mistakes since his declared enemy, Satan, tries to divert his attention by all possible ways and means. He always encourages man to satisfy his urges and desires in an uncontrolled way, like animals, and to become submissive and a slave to these urges. Therefore, the human instinctive tendencies, unless refined and trained, could easily overwhelm any humanely cultivated qualities conducive to spiritual enhancement. This is because the uncontrolled and unrefined urges within him would weaken and subjugate the forces of reason and conscience.

Describing some aspects of the unrefined human nature, the Holy Qur’an says:
“Surely man was created anxious, fretful when evil visits him, and grudging when (some thing) good visits him, except the worshippers.” (70:19-21)
In another surah it says:
“As for man, whenever his Lord tries him by honouring and blessing him, he says: ‘My Lord has honoured me.’ But whenever he tries him by straitening his provision, he says: ‘My Lord has humiliated me.’ (89:15-16)
The Qur’an explains another weakness in human nature which impedes self development, is the weakness of will. While narrating the story of Adam, Allah informs:
And, indeed, long ago We made Our covenant with Adam; but he forgot and We found no firmness of purpose in him. ( 20:115]

God tells us in the Qur’an that the most honorable trust, that of knowledge of Allah the all Mighty, was offered to the heavens, the earth and the mountains but they refused it, recognizing that they could not take up such a weighty truth (33:72). Mankind, however, took it on, but since weakness and forgetfulness are part of the spectrum of human being, he sees himself at all times and forgets his source. This weakness which Allah has placed within human being is to make him remember Him who is Strong (al-Qawi).

Today it has been established, scientifically as well as philosophically that there does not exist an evil human being; there exist only sick human being. This is extremely a significant discovery in the history of humankind which has already been introduced by Islam. According to this theory, bad manners like injustice, stinginess, cunning, jealousy, greed, ingratitude and so on are considered as spiritual illness and should be treated exactly like any other disease. The Holy Qur’an considers the hypocrites as sick persons saying:
There is a sickness in their hearts. (2:10)

This Qur’anic theory requires people not to consider any one as evil person or show any hostility or resentment towards them. Instead, they should look upon them as sick human beings who deserve their sympathy.

The Components of Human Nature

While speaking about the nature of man, Qur’an uses words like nafs, ruh, Qalb etc. Spirit is transcendent and the center of man’s being. Whereas soul (nafs), in its downward or corporeal tendency, is attached to the body and in its upward or spiritual tendency, is attached to the spirit (al-ruh).
In order to understand the Islamic concept of human psyche and nature, one must understand these terms and their relationship to each other. These basic terms are explained here.

Nafs and its levels :

Nafs (pl. Anfus or Nufus) lexically means soul, the psyche, the ego, self, life, person, heart or mind. Tajul Uroos writes that this word is used normally to denote the total personality of a person. It also means knowledge and intellect. (Taj: Ibn-i-Faris). It is used for a person as well. It is further used to express greatness, superiority, courage, resolution, and punishment. (Taj and Lisanul Arab).
The term Nafs has different uses in the Holy Qur’an as well, and in most cases, it means the human being in reality, his self and his person. (see 3: 61; 12:54) It also means the human soul (see 6:93; 50:16 etc.)
The nafs is a basic element in the cosmology of existence. Al-Ghazali mentions the two dimensions of al-nafs: the upward dimension and the downward dimension. The upward dimension is the uppermost limit of psyche which connects it the spirit, whereas the downward dimension is represented by the sensory faculties which connect it to the body.

According to the Sufi understanding, nafs is the source the negative power of anger and sexual appetite in a human being which blinds his intellect. Sufis take "nafs" as the comprehensive word for all the evil attributes of a person. That is why they emphasize on doing battle with it and to break and inactivate it as it is referred to in the Hadith of the Holy Prophet (PBUH):
“Your worst enemy is your nafs which lies between your sides.”

The nafs needs to be nourished and developed in the Divine guidance. The nafs starts its career in an undeveloped form but equipped with immense potentialities of corruption as well as the development and getting closer to the Most Perfect Self, Allah (SWT), Whose attributes serve as an objective standard for the human self.
Although some scholars have classified the Nafs up to 7 stages, the Qur’an has described 3 main types of nafs which are:

Nafs ammarah bi al-su’, (the self urging evil)

This nafs surrenders itself to lusts and allows itself to be seduced by the devil. This is the raw self of an untrained person. Al-Nafs al-Ammarah has Shaytan as its ally who falsely promises him great rewards and gains and always invites him and attracts the soul to do evil. He presents falsehood to him in a form that he accepts and admires it.
By its very nature, Al-Nafs al-Ammarah directs its owner towards every wrong action. Allah says:
“Surely the human self urges evil.” (12:53)

Al-Nafs al-Ammara paralyzes the cognitive process of human being. Describing this fatal effect of Al-Nafs al-Ammarah, the Holy Qur’an says:
“They have hearts wherewith they do not understand; have eyes wherewith they do not see; have ears wherewith they do not hear. These are like cattle – no, but they are worse! These are the neglectful.” (7-179)

Al-Ghazali has mentioned the following negative tendencies of this nafs naming tem with ‘spiritual diseases’:
1- Nifaq (hypocrisy)
2- Pride and arrogance
3- Hawa or desire
4- Self-beholding
5- Greediness
6- Negligence
7- Restlessness
8- Ri’a

These are the most harmful tendencies of al-nafs and greatest barriers to the growth of man. When these dominate the self, man loses his insight and his total energies are diverted towards unnecessary activities. As a result, he starts believing deception as truth, fiction as reality and self-glorification as his highest goal in life.

Nafs al-lawwama, (the blaming self)

The second level of nafs is nafs al-lawwama, the blameworthy self which blames its owner for his own shortcomings. At this level, nafs is in a state of constant awareness, self-observation and self-criticism. It recognises his shortcomings, his wrong actions, his disobedience and the neglect of his duties. It is referred to it in Sura Al¬-Qiyamah when Allah says:
"And I do call to witness the Nafs that blames" (75:2).

Nafs al-lawwama is the one which cannot rest in one state. It often changes and alters, remembers and forgets, submits and withdraws, loves and hates, rejoices and becomes sad, accepts and rejects, obeys and rebels. Actually nafs, at this stage, is in the mid of its journey towards its growth and perfection.

Nafs al-mutma’inna, (the Self at Peace)

Nafs al-mutma’inna is the third and the highest stage of nafs. A person when advanced to this stage, he achieves full rest and satisfaction while his personality gets equipped with the qualities of quietness, mildness, tolerance, forgiveness, and understanding of all beings. This stage of nafs ultimately leads to resolution of one’s inner conflicts and attainment of harmony with God. His personality is now dyed with His universal Colour while his behavior reflects the Absolute being and the Ultimate Reality. (Haq, Manzurul. (1984). Concept of personality development in the light of Islamic thoughts. The Bangladesh journal of Psychology, 7, 118-128.) (An abridged quotation)

This is the soul to whom it is said at the time of death:
“O soul at peace, return to your Lord, well pleased and well-pleasing. Enter with My servants, enter into My Garden.” (89:27-30)

Al-Qatadah says abut this stage of nafs: "It is the soul of the believer, made calm by what Allah has promised. Its owner is at rest and content with his knowledge of Allah’s Names and Attributes, and with what He has said about Himself and His Messenger (PBUH), and with what He has said about the Hereafter…. So much so that a believer can almost see them with his own eyes. So he submits to the will of Allah and surrenders to Him contentedly, never dissatisfied or complaining, and with his faith never wavering. He does not rejoice at his gains, nor do his sufferings make him despair." (Al-Tabari: Jami’ al-Bayan fi Tafsir al-Qur’an, vol. 13, Bulaq 1323)


Muslim theologians are divided on the issue that whether the terms “nafs” and “ruh” signify one and the same thing or are they two different entities and whether they are interchangeable?” (Ibn Al-Ālusi’s Jala’ al-‘Aynayn, pp. 142-143) Although these terms may be used interchangeably in relation to their essence, each one has clearly separate and restricted applications in certain contexts.

While the ruh spans the entire spectrum of existence - the seen as well as the unseen - the nafs is restricted to only that which may be experienced in the creational world. We may speak of the nafs as being greedy or unjust in some situations only because the light of the ruh highlights these qualities within the nafs. Indeed the nafs only exists because of the ruh which energizes it.
Ruh or spirit is the core of man’s being, yet it remains hidden. During human life on earth, the spirit and the body are united but then there is a temporary separation during death with the final union to take place in the life thereafter.
According to Muslim scholars, Ruh is the reflection of the Divine presence in man. The Holy Qur’an declares that Allah (SWT) has blown His spirit into human body:
“When I have made him and have breathed into him of My spirit, (I ordered the angles to) bow down, prostrating yourself before him. (15:29 also see 38:72 and 32:8)
The status of being the recipient of Divine spirit elevated man from his humble origin, enabled him to overcome the baser part of his nature, and made him worthy of being the vicegerent of God.

Since human body is from the earth while the spirit is from the heaven and Divine, it always longs to be united with Whom it was separated from. It is stated in Qur’an “to God we belong, to Him is our return.”
Rumi says in his book, Masnavi that the reason why a child cries the first moment after it is born on earth is because it realizes its exile from the higher place. It is unhappy because it seems captive in this worldly body. Explaining the idea of the captivity of the spirit, Rumi narrates a Qur’anic story. It says that God made a statue of Adam and asked the Ruh to enter into the body but it refused saying, ‘Lord, I do not want to be imprisoned in this physical body’. Then God told the angels to sing and dance, and on hearing their song and with the rhythm of the dance the soul went into delight, and in that condition it entered the body. Rumi says that the reason why every soul is longing to attain something is that it is in exile and a captive in this physical body.

Due to the captivity of the spirit and limitation of his physical body, man’s vision remains small and narrow. Man’s innermost being can not be satisfied except for a short time by outside factors. There always comes a time when every one finds that nothing pleases him even if he possesses all what he wants. His lack of freedom causes a continual longing for spiritual achievements. And when man reaches the stage of spiritual attainment and gets closer to its origin, he gets inner satisfaction, he develops the outlook of God and his manners become the manners of God.


The qalb (heart) is an immaterial and formless spiritual entity or basic subtle element which has got connection with the material heart. The qalb has the capacities to acquire comprehensive intuition, to retain real knowledge, the gnosis (ma’rifa) of God and the Divine mysteries, (‘ilm al-batin) and to gain far greater insight than that of human intellect. The Qur’an considers al-Qalb as the seat of wisdom and intellect. It says:
“Do they not travel trough the land, so that their hearts may learn wisdom and their ears may learn to hear? Truly it is not their eyes, rather it is their hearts which are in their chests are blind.” (22:46)

The qalb is nourished by dhikr (remembrance of God). Its health also depends on its purity and freedom. It is the organ of a perception which is both an experience and a taste (dhawq). Al-qalb is also the master of human body which controls its organic and physical functions. All external behavioral acts of man are actually the reflection of states and conditions of al-qalb.

According to a Hadith of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) the heart is owned mutually by an angel and a shaytan:
"There are two impulses in the soul, one from an angel which calls towards good and confirms truth; whoever finds this let him know it is from God and praise Him. Another impulse comes from the enemy which leads to doubt and denies truth and forbids good; whoever finds this, let him seek refuge in God from the accursed devil." Then he recited the verse: "The devil shows you fear of poverty and enjoins evil upon you" (2:268) (Sahih Tirmidhi)

The mutual resistance of the angels and the devils remains constant in the battle over the qalb, until it is conquered by one of the two.
The same position of al-qalb and its relationship with al-ruh and al-nafs has been interestingly explained by Maulana Thanwi:
“The spirit (al-ruh) and the soul (al-nafs) engage in the battle for the possession of their common son, the heart (al-qalb). This is a symbolical way of expressing the nature of the spirit, which is masculine and the nature of soul, which is feminine.” (Thanvi, Ashraf Ali, al-sihhat hukm al-waswasah, (Deoband 1365 A.H.), 225)

According to another writer, if the spirit wins the battle, the heart will be transformed into spirit and, at the same time, transmutes its soul, engulfing her with spiritual light. Then the heart reveals itself; it becomes the lamp (mishkat) of Divine Mystery (sirr) in man. (T. Burckhardt, An introduction to Sufi Doctrine, trans. D. M. Matheson (Lahore: M. Ashraf, 1983) 27.)

The Healthy Heart

It is a heart purified from any passion that challenges Allah’s commands and safeguarded against the worship of anything other than Him. It seeks the judgement of no one other than him and His Messenger. Its services are exclusively reserved for Allah, willingly and lovingly, with total reliance, relating all matters to Him, in fear, hope and sincere dedication. When it loves, its love is for the sake of Allah. If it hates, its hate is for the sake of Allah. When it gives, it gives for Allah. If it withholds, it withholds for Allah (SWT). The Holy Qur’an uses adjectives such as ‘healthy’, ‘wholesome’ ‘contented’ and so on to describe this kind of heart.

Allah (SWT) has declared that on the Day of Resurrection, only those would be saved who come with a healthy heart:
"The day on which neither wealth nor sons will be of any use, except for whoever brings to Allah a sound heart. (26:88-89)"
According to an authentic saying of the Holy Prophet (PBUH):
“Inside the human body there is a piece of flesh which, if it is healthy, the whole body is healthy and if it becomes unhealthy, the whole body gets unhealthy. That is al-qalb.” (Sahih Bukhari)
The heart can not be healthy i.e. successful, righteous, contented, pleased, assured except by the worship of Allah, love of Him and repentance to Him as it has an inherent need for its Lord. According to the Holy Qur’an, the heart will remain restless until it rests in God:
“For sure it is in the remembrance of God that the heart finds rest,” (13:28)

The Dead Heart

The dead or sealed heart is that which is veiled from higher inspiration for example the hearts of the hypocrites. There is little or nothing one can do to heal such hearts. This is the opposite of the healthy heart. It does not know its Lord and does not worship Him. It clings instead to its lusts and desires, even if these are likely to incur Allah’s displeasure and anger. It worships things other than Allah, and its loves and its hatreds, its giving and its withholding, arise from its whims, which are of paramount importance to it.

The Sick Heart

A large number of Qur’anic verses describe the ‘sick’ heart. The sick hearts are those that find whatever they do, attractive to them. These hearts dislike what turns them away from the course they are on. They are wrapped up in fantasies, they are contemptuous, and they follow routines and old patterns, doing ‘what their forefathers practiced’. The sick heart is also proud and hardened. It lacks real understanding because it is engulfed in desire.

This is a heart with life as well as illness in it. It has love for Allah, faith in Him, sincerity towards Him, and reliance upon Him. These are the qualities that give it life. It also has longing for lust and pleasure; it prefers them and strives to experience them. It is full of self-admiration, which can lead to its own destruction. It listens to two callers: one calling it to Allah and His Prophet; and the other calling it to the momentary pleasures. It responds to whichever one of the two happens to have most influence over it at the time.
A Hadith of the Holy Prophet explain the process of heart getting sickness. It is as follows:
“When a believer commits a sin, a dark spot appears on his heart. If he repents and seeks forgiveness (of Allah), his heart becomes spotless again. But if he persists in sin, the dark spot increases. This is the spot that has been mentioned in the Qur’an: “But on their hearts is the stain of (the ill) which they do.” (83:14) (Ibn Majah)

Other Ahadith mention that if the sinner does not repent, and instead keeps on committing sins, the stain on his heart increases and gets more darkened until it overwhelms the whole heart. Ultimately, the heart of sinner is sealed and he becomes spiritually dead.
For the purpose of simplification, nafs can be thought of as the outer man, ruh as the inner man, and qalb, the composite faculties of reasoning and decision-making, and a bridge between the two.


Man, being the vicegerent of God on earth and the theater wherein the Divine qualities are reflected, can reach felicity only by remaining faithful to his nature or by being truly himself. And this in turn implies that he must become integrated. Man is composed of body, mind, nafs and spirit, and each needs to be integrated on its own level. The integration of man, according to Syyed Hossain Nasr, (Sufi Essays, 51) means the realization of the One and the transmutation of the many in the light of the One. Integration and unity of man himself as well as of the whole humanity has always been the highest goal of Islam. It is also an essential part of basic Islamic belief of Tawhid. The same concept has been highlighted by a sufi poet as:
“See but One, say but One, know but One,
In this, the roots and branches of faith are summed up.”

(source :

The Sources of Tarikh al-Tabari

Al-Tabari's Methodology of his Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk.

Al-ÙabarÊ (d. 310 A.H.) wrote his TÉrÊkh al-Rusul wa al-MulËk (The History of the Prophets and Kings) which also known as TÉrÊkh al-ÙabarÊ has voluminous history starting with a discussion on the creation of the universe. He gave detailed account of Islamic history from genealogy of the Prophet (SAW) up to the year 302 A.H.

1. Sources of Al-Tabari's Tarikh

Al-ÙabarÊ depended mostly on the narrations which had already found their way into the works of his predecessors. Rather than collecting only those narratives which were according to his liking, he wrote in detail about each particular event without giving his own opinion. He gave the chain of transmitters (isnÉd) like the traditionalist that he was. He did not fail to mention the authors from whose works he took his material. For instance, relating to the story of Adam whom was taught all the names, al-ÙabarÊ quoted from Ibn ÑAbbÉs. He writes:
According to AÍmad b. IshÉq al-AÍwazÊ-AbË SharÊk (b. ÑAbd AllÉh al-NakhÉÑÊ)-ÑÓÎim b. Kulayb-al-×asan b. SaÑd-Ibn ÑAbbÉs, commenting on: “And He taught Adam all the names,” as follows: He taught him the name of everything, down to fart and little fart.

Up to the end of pre-Islamic portion, he presented events without giving any date or year for their occurrence, because of the non-availability of dependable information. From the Islamic era he wrote annalistically up to the year 302 A.H. The annalistic method of history writing is a unique contribution of Muslim historians. Europe was ignorant of it up to the year 1597 C.E.
As a scholar convinced of the preeminence of the material with which he dealt, al-ÙabarÊ was not inclined to waste time and space on such mundane matters as when and where he had contact with his authorities. Occasionally, he might very well have indicated such data, for it was the custom to keep notes including the name of teacher and the time of attendance at his classes. In fact that he often referred to someone with whom he undoubtedly had some personal contact; but later, he used the source that was transmitted to him by that individual in its written (published) form and quoted from it while pretending all the time to rely upon oral transmission.
Among the sources of the TÉrÊkh, al-ÙabarÊ’s own TafsÊr has always been consulted and cited. The Material quoted here by al-ÙabarÊ was no doubt taken from earlier Qur’Én commentaries, most of them still lost or imperfectly known. Some of those commentaries have recently been published; such as the works of SufyÉn al-ThawrÊ, MujÉhid, and MuqÉtil.
Most prominent among his teachers was Ibn ×umayd. AbË ÑAbd AllÉh MuÍammad b. ×umayd al-RÉzÊ was in his seventies at the time, and he died a decade later in 248 A.H. He became one of al-ÙabarÊ’s most frequent cited authorities. Ibn ×umayd had lectured in Baghdad and had been there by Ibn ×anbal, who is even said to have transmitted traditions on his authority. In al-ÙabarÊ’s time, Ibn ×umayd had apparently retired to his native city, in which al-ÙabarÊ could have continued his study with him there. Thus, the material he quoted on Ibn ×umayd’s authority was acquired by him in Rayy. Another teachers from al-ÙabarÊ,s days in al-Rayy al-MuthannÉ b. IbrÉhÊm whose nisbah was al-ÓmulÊ, and AÍmad b. ×ammÉd al-DËlÉbÊ.
It is significance that the instruction which al-ÙabarÊ received from Ibn ×umayd in al-Rayy extended to the historical works of Ibn IsÍÉq, famous above all as the author of the life of MuÍammad (al-SÊrah). He thus learned about pre-Islamic and early Islamic history. In al-ÙabarÊ’s case, more importantly, it would seem that in the process, the seeds were planted for his wider interest in history which later culminated in the writing of his great history. According to YÉqËt, Ibn KÉmil is supposed to have reported that it was under the guidance of AÍmad b. ×ammÉd al-DËlÉbÊ on the authority of SalÉmah b. al-FaÌl that al-ÙabarÊ studied Ibn IsÍÉq’s MubtadÉ’ and MaghÉzÊ and thus laid the groundwork for TÉrÊkh. However, in the TÉrÊkh itself, the isnÉd is always Ibn ×umayd-SalÉmah-Ibn IsÍÉq. Al-ÙabarÊ later on continued his study of Ibn IsÍÉq. In KËfah, both HannÉd b. al-SÉrÊ and AbË Kurayb tranmitted to him information from Ibn IsÍÉq’. According to another recension, that of YËnus b. Bukayr (d. 199 A.H.). At the same time, al-ÙabarÊ probably did not receive instruction in special course devoted entirely to Ibn IsÍÉq. It was rather through incidental reference that he learned more about him there.
Scholars in al-BaÎrah whom al-ÙabarÊ met during his visit there included men quoted again and again in his works. Among them were; MuÍammad b. ÑAbd al-AÑlÉ al-ØanÑÉnÊ (d. 245 A.H.), MuÍammad b. MËsÉ al-×arashÊ (d. 248 A.H.), and AbË al-AshÑath AÍmad b. al-Miqdam (d. 253 A.H.), meanwhile in KËfah, among others, IsmÉÑÊl b. MËsÉ al-FazarÊ (d. 245 A.H.) and SulaymÉn b. ÑAbd al-RaÍmÉn b. ×ammÉd al-ÙalÍÊ (d. 252 A.H.). The two men from whom he profited most in those years were MuÍammad b. BashshÉr, known as BundÉr (d. 252 A.H.) in BaÎrah, and AbË Kurayb (d. 247 or 248 A.H.) in KËfah.
The History, on the other hand was in accordance with the basic character of Muslim historiography, never really superseded. It remained the unique source for the period it covered, even when other sources for it were still available. Later historian constantly used al-ÙabarÊ’s work, at first directly, but then, in the course of time, usually indirectly through other histories such as the one of Ibn al-AthÊr. The new works offered much of al-ÙabarÊ’s information in a shortened form and naturally, added much subsequent history. Thus, they were easier to handle and had the advantage of being of greater interest for the majority of readers who wanted to learn about events close to their own times. Some, if not many, later historians continued to use al-ÙabarÊ and even seek out earlier sources, but manuscripts became increasingly difficult to find.

Note : Plz change this font (AHT Times New Roman) into Times New Roman when you copy this article (in order to avoid any effect of Arabic transliteration).. tq .

Introduction to Ibn Jarir al-Tabari

Introduction to al-ÙabarÊ

AbË JaÑfar MuÍammad b. JarÊr al-ÙabarÊ. He was born in Amol, Tabaristan (224 A.H.). He left home to study in 236 A.H. when he was twelve. He retained close ties to his home town. He did return at least twice, the last time in 290 A.H. when his outspokenness caused some uneasiness and led to his quick departure.
He first went to Ray, where he remained for some five years. A major teachers in al-Rayy were; Ibn ×umayd al-RÉzÊ, and AÍmad b. ×ammÉd al-DËlÉbÊ. Ibn ×umayd had taught in Baghdad and was now retired in his native city. Among other material, Ibn ×umayd taught al-ÙabarÊ the historical works of Ibn IsÍÉq, especially al-SÊrah, the life of the prophet MuÍammad (SAW). Al-ÙabarÊ was thus introduced in youth to pre-Islamic and early Islamic history. Al-ÙabarÊ quotes ibn Humayd frequently.
Then he went to Baghdad to study from Ibn ×anbal, who, however, had recently died. This was in late 241 A.H. He left Baghdad probably in 242 A.H. to travel through the southern cities of BaÎrah, KËfah and WasÊÏ. There he met a number of eminent and venerable scholars. On his return to Baghdad, he took a tutoring position from the vizier ÑUbaydullah b. YaÍyÉ b. KhÉqÉn. This would have been before 244 A.H. since the vizier was out of office and in exile from 244 to 248 A.H. In his late twenties he traveled to Syria, Palestine and Egypt. He died in ShawwÉl 310 A.H. in Baghdad.
Al-ÙabarÊ has numerous works in various disciplines of knowledge. Among the main referred references for generations are; JÉmiÑ al-BayÉn Ñan Ta’wÊl Éy al-Qur’Én (famously known as TafsÊr al-ÙabarÊ), TÉrÊkh al-Rusul wa al-MulËk (or TÉrÊkh al-ÙabarÊ), TahdhÊb al-AthÉr, AdÉb al-NufËs, AdÉb al-ManÉsik, KitÉb al-FaÌÉ’il, and IkhtilÉf ÑUlamÉ’ al-AmÎÉr.

Friday, March 13, 2009

Arab Historiography

A Brief of Arab Historiography

Arab historiography has been continuously, as an art, cultivated for several centuries since the emergence of Islam. Slowly but steadily it assumed the form of a science of high proportions and acquired an importance that can hardly be underestimated. However, the evidence is not sufficient to show how this art progressed and became deep rooted among Arabs.
The earliest Arab society of which we have knowledge was that of the nomads, and there were some permanent settlements of which we have very scanty information. In South Arabia, some inscriptions have been found which reveal existence of four states before 1200 B.C. The head of the state had temporal as well as divine status. Although, these inscriptions are religious in content, yet some of these indicate the historicity of other human activities. The North Arabians did not lack information about Arabs of ×Êrah, their genealogy and their kings. They preserved accounts related to their deities, social happenings, battles and genealogy through oral tradition. These writings were known as the ÑAyyÉm literature.
However, it was not historian alone to whom we owe the first record of events of the Arabs of the past. It was the imagination of the poet, inspired by he valiant deeds of his tribe in the past which gave expression to these feelings in poetry. Ancient Arabic poetry may probably be regarded as the first attempt at preserving the happenings in the past. With the advent of Islam, the discourses of the Prophet MuÍammad (SAW) threw ample light on the activities of the Arabs, their position in history and the mission which they were called upon to carry out. The first generation of Muslims was led by natural drive of curiosity and piety to collect records and reports regarding the Prophet’s life and his struggles. The records of what the Prophet (SAW) said, did and approved in the course of his mission were eventually gathered together and systematized as collections of his ÍadÊths. Thus, Islamic law and rules along with the art of historiography were developed.
The biography (al-SÊrah) of MuÍammad (SAW) and his companions provided a firm ground for the development of early Islamic history. The method of ‘isnÉd in recording the ÍadÊths and their chronological order was so impressive that it became part and parcel of Muslim historiography for generations. The prominent scholars, who wrote al-SÊrah and al-MaghÉzÊ on the above mentioned pattern are: AbbÉn b. ÑUthmÉn b. ÑAffÉn of MadÊnah (d. 105 A.H.), ÑUrwah b. al-Zubayr of MadÊnah (d. 92 A.H.), ShurajÊl b. SaÑd of MadÊnah (d. 123 A.H.), Wahb b. Munabbih of Yemen (d. 110 A.H.), Ibn ShihÉb al-ZuhrÊ of Makkah (d. 124 A.H.), ÑÓÎim b. ÑAmr b. QatÉdah of MadÊnah (d. 120 A.H.), ÑAbd AllÉh b. AbÊ Bakr b. ×azam of MadÊnah (d. 135 A.H.), MËsÉ b. ÑUqbah (d. 141 A.H.), MuÑammar b. RÉshid (d. 150 A.H.), Ibn IsÍÉq (d. 152 A.H.), ZiyyÉd al-BakÉ’Ê (d. 183 A.H.), Ibn HishÉm (d. 218 A.H.), al-WÉqidÊ (d. 207 A.H.) and Ibn SaÑd (d. 230 A.H.).
The most outstanding SÊrah and MaghÉzÊ writer was Ibn IsÍÉq. He divided his work into three parts. The first was called al-MubtadÉ’, in which he gathered information from the creation of the universe up to the proclamation of the prophethood of MuÍammad (SAW). The second part is known as KitÉb al-MaghÉzÊ, which starts with the proclamation of the Prophethood of MuÍammad (SAW) up to his death, meanwhile the third is KitÉb al-KhulafÉ’ which deals with the periods of the pious caliphates and the early of Umayyad reigns. Ibn IsÍÉq is often criticized for some of his artistic lapses which, according to the critics, include his fabricated verses in KitÉb al-SÊrah, carelessness in quoting isnÉd, glaring mistakes in recording genealogies and his reliance and unjustified confidence in Jewish and Christian reports. But in spite of objections the credit goes to him for integrating the story of early Islam under the Prophet (SAW), his caliphs and the Umayyad rulers, and the early prophets as one whole. Later on, it was Ibn HishÉm who deleted all the fabricated and doubtful information and verses particularly from the MubtadÉ’ section, and thus prepared an abridged edition of al-SÊrah al-Nabawiyah.
Second in importance was al-WÉqidÊ (d. 207 A.H.). He was interested in the MaghÉzÊ, SÊrah and general history. According to KhaÏÊb al-BaghdÉdÊ, he did not leave any descendant of the companions of the Prophet (SAW) without inquiring about his ancestors’ participation in battles and his place of death or martyrdom. To authenticate his statements, he would record a particular event. Ibn NadÊm has mentioned twenty-eight titles of his works, out of which twenty-four dealt with history. So far, only KitÉb al-MaghÉzÊ (3 vols.), Futuh al-ShÉm (2 vols.), FutËÍ al-ÑAjam and FutËÍ MiÎr have been published. Critics seem divided and confused in forming a single opinion on what al-WÉqidÊ put forth for coming generations. There are some who go to the extent of calling him a liar and an untrustworthy reporter while there are others who not only hold him in great esteem but also acknowledge and appreciate what they consider his contribution to history.
MuÍammad b. SaÑd b. ManÊÑ (d. 230 A.H.), worked as secretary to al-WÉqidÊ and thus got the opportunity to study Islamic history in depth. His well known work ÙabaqÉt al-KubrÉ available in eight volumes is a standing proof of his stamina as a scholar of great caliber. The significance of the whole book lies in the fact that it records the life of the Prophet (SAW), his Companions, TÉbiÑÊn and their followers right up to his own age. When he completed the first two volumes of the ÙabaqÉt on the SÊrah, he added a chapter on those people who gave verdicts in MadÊnah in the Prophet’s time. He then recorded the biographies of the Companions and TÉbiÑÊn in order of their status and the last volume is completed with the biographical accounts of distinguished women. Thus, the ÙabaqÉt is considered among the foremost works in the subject which became one of the earliest works of RijÉl literature.
The ÍadÊth literature records not only the biography of the Prophet (SAW), but also the earliest event occurring in the nascent Islamic community after the death of the Prophet (SAW). It describes the foundations and the aims of the Islamic state and the victories of Muslims beyond the limits of Arabia. As regards the events connected with early Islamic society, since the time of the pious Caliphs, including the process of expansion and state affairs, we find two groups of scholars who have contributed a lot to widen the scope of the subject: one group belonged mainly to MadanÊ School and the other to the Iraqi School of history writing. In this school a group of erudite antiquarians like AbË Miknaf, Sayf b. ÑUmar and al-MadÊnÊ composed a series of works in a special monographic form about the early Arab conquests, the activities of the Muslim masses within the limits of the Islamic Empire, depicting the different tendencies and the confrontation of views within the community.
For instance, ÑAlÊ b. MuÍammad al-MadÊnÊ (d. 225 A.H.) was born in BaÎrah and afterwards settled in Baghdad. The influence of the method of isnÉd is visible in his writings. He has contributed 245 works in this field. Some of his books are; (1) KitÉb AkhbÉr al-KhulafÉ’ al-KabÊr, (2) KitÉb al-Dawlah al-ÑAbbÉsiyah, (3) FutËÍ al-KhurasÉn and (4) TÉrÊkh al-BaÎrah. He has earned praises for his critical approach to the events and their transmitters. Since he did not represent any particular political group, he tried to maintain a balance in the selection of his material.
In the pre-Islamic period, the Arabs generally preserved their genealogy in poetry. The poets would prefix some prose to elucidate and explain the abstruse or infamous events relating to their tribes. This provided important information to the historian. AÍmad b. YaÍyÉ al-BalÉdhurÊ (d. 279 A.H.) was one of the important genealogists. His well known work is AnsÉb al-AshrÉf, available in five volumes, is a masterpiece in genealogical literature. This book is considered to be an important source of Islamic history. He not only excelled genealogy, but also wrote on topics connected with history such as (1) AÍad ArdashÊr, (2) FutËÍ al-BuldÉn and KitÉb al-BuldÉn al-KabÊr.
His AnsÉb al-AshrÉf is genealogically arranged and begins with the life of the Prophet (SAW) and the biographies of his kinsman. The last portion of the work consists of the biography of al-×ajjÉj. It is one of the characteristic features of AnsÉb that biographies of the caliphs of the historical accounts connected with their lives are given chapter wise under a suitably allotted title. Badruddin Bhat views in outward appearance the book seems to be connected wholly with the AnsÉb literature but in reality its style resembles the ÙabaqÉt of Ibn SaÑd. Other scholars of this group are; MuÍammad b. SÉ’ib al-KalbÊ (d. 146 A.H.), MasÑab b. ÑAbd AllÉh b. MasÑab b. Zubayr (d. 233 A.H.) and AÍmad b. AbÊ YaÑqËb b. JaÑfar (d. 284 A.H.) known as al-YaÑqËbÊ.
Ibn Qutaybah, ÑAbd AllÉh b. Muslim (d. 276 A.H.) wrote KitÉb al-MaÑÉrif and ÑUyËn al-AkhbÉr, which contain historical information of a universal nature. His KitÉb al-MaÑÉrif is a compendium of historical information largely consisting of lists and facts connected with the holy Prophet (SAW), genealogical tables, the names of the sects and the like. The utility of the book is unquestionable, but it can scarcely be called history in the true sense of the term.
The most important historian of this type was AbË JaÑfar MuÍammad b. JarÊr al-ÙabarÊ (d. 310 A.H.). His TÉrÊkh al-Rusul wa al-MulËk (The History of The Prophets and Kings) is a voluminous history starting with a discussion on the creation of the universe. He gave detailed account of Islamic history from genealogy of the Prophet (SAW) up to the year 302 A.H. Al-ÙabarÊ depended mostly on the narrations which had already found their way into the works of his predecessor rather than collecting only those narratives which were according to his liking. He wrote in detail about each particular event without giving his opinion. Al-ÙabarÊ’s history has remained the most important and authentic source of al-MasÑËdÊ , Ibn Miskawayh, Ibn AthÊr, Ibn KhaldËn and furthermore, it continues to be so floor the researchers of the Islamic history even today.

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