Sunday, March 16, 2008

Pondering on the Signs of God

Pondering on the Signs of God

By Harun Yahya

In the Qur’an, it is stated that the unbeliever is one who neither recognizes nor appreciates the signs of God. The distinguishing mark of a believer is his ability to see those signs and proofs. He knows that these are not created in vain, and can realize the power and great art of God everywhere and find ways to revere Him. He is one of those men of sense, who  celebrate the praises of God, standing, sitting, and lying down on their sides, and contemplate the (wonders of) creation in the heavens and the earth, (and say): ‘Our Lord! not for naught have You created (all) this! Glory be to You! Give us salvation from the penalty of the Fire.’(Surat Aal `Imran 3:191)**
At various points in the Qur’an, expressions like, “will you not take heed?”, “...there is a sign for thinking men,” lay stress on the importance of pondering upon the signs of God. God has created an endless list of subjects for reflection. Everything we see and sense in the heavens and on the earth and in between is indeed a manifestation of God’s creativity and, as such should be food for thought. One of the verses gives the example of these divine blessing of God:
With it He produces for you corn, olives, date palms, grapes and every kind of fruit: verily, in this is a sign for those who give thought. (Surat An-Nahl 16:11)
Let us think for a moment of one of the above mentioned items: the date palm. The tree, as is well known, grows up from a seed out of the earth. From this tiny seed (a seed is not even 1 cubic centimeter in size), arises an enormous wooden mass of 4-5 meters long and hundreds of kilograms in weight. The only thing that the seed can use while constituting this great mass is the earth in which it is buried.
Look around you… How many wonderful signs of God can you see?
For more on the vast diversity of God’s creation see
A Beautiful World

How can a seed know how to form a tree? How can it “reason” to decompose the necessary substances in the soil to create wood? How can it predict the required shape and structure? This last question is especially important, because it is not an ordinary wooden piece that emerges from the seed. It is a complex living organism with roots for assimilating substances from the earth, with veins and with branches that are perfectly organized. A human being has difficulty in drawing even a picture of a tree, while on the contrary a simple seed can produce such an extremely complex object by merely using the substances in the soil.
This observation concludes that a seed is extremely intelligent and wise, even more so than we are. Or to be more precise, there is an amazing intelligence in what a seed does. But what is the source of that intelligence? How can it be possible for a seed to have such intelligence and memory?
No doubt, this question has a single answer: the seed is created by being endowed with the ability to form a tree, that is, it is programmed so in advance. Every seed on earth is encompassed by God and grows within His knowledge. In one of the verses it is stated:
With Him are the keys of the unseen, the treasures that none knows but He. He knows whatever there is on the earth and in the sea. Not a leaf falls but with His knowledge: there is not a grain in the darkness (or depths) of the earth, nor anything fresh or dry (green or withered), but is (inscribed) in a record clear. (Surat Al-An’am 6:59)
It is God who creates the seed and causes it to spring forth as a new plant. In another verse it is said:
It is God Who causes the seed-grain and the date-stone to split and sprout. He causes the living to issue from the dead, and He is the one to cause the dead to issue from the living. That is God: then how are you deluded away from the truth? (Surat Al-An’am 6:95)
The seed is merely one of the numerous signs that God has created in the universe. If men begin to think not only with their minds but also with their hearts, and ask of themselves, the questions “why” and “how”, they will be able to understand that entire universe is the proof of the existence and power of God.
* Taken with permission from
** The translation of the Qur’an used in this article is Yusuf Ali’s translation



The Challenges Nowadays

Steps to Re-Inventing Islamic civilization

Steps in the Creation of an Authentic Islamic Science
Challenges Nowadays

Obstacles or challenges which prevent Muslims in developing the Islamic Civilization and some aspects that prevent westerners adopting Islam :

1. Globalization
2. Western arrogance / attitude
3. The spirit of the crusades
4. Negative Image of Islam / fear of Islam
5. Muslim weakness
6. Attitude of Muslims toward other civilizations
7. Interference in Islamic Teachings
8. Western media

1. Globalization

It is not the one that encourages unity of all civilizations by the name of friendship, love and mutual trust.

Instead, it contains decisions that have been made by the western people without containing a single Islamic element (value) and being brought up for Muslims to follow


The amount of information, news, values, manners, and worldview of the western countries which are characterized by materialism, secularism etc. flow into Muslim society without any permission through the internet, TV station, news broadcasting, travel etc.

This will create a religious, moral, and cultural monopoly, where non-western nations will share the same worldview, lifestyle, and culture with the west.

Its result is Westernization of Muslim life, brainwash of Muslims generation


Globalization is seemed to have become an instrument of political superiority and military domination and colonization.

Any country and society that close the door before globalization (western interest) will be forced to open the doors especially that the world now is unipolar and monopolized by the superpower.

There is many bad implication of globalization:

- Increase the domination and monopoly of the rich
- Create disunity and discrimination.
- Destroying local industry ,
- Internationalized crime of all kinds, etc

2. Western Arrogance / attitude
Looking to themselves with superiority and to others with disgust because the westerners inherited Roman civilization which divided them into 2 groups :
1st masters (western)
2nd barbers and slaves (immigrant, etc)

Racial discrimination according to colour, race etc - it was dispensable factor in building at western civilization.

The white race was superior one which deserved sovereignty and domination over others.

3. The Spirit of Crusades

Christian consider fighting with Muslim is crusades.
Crusade I : 1099 – Muslim lost Jerusalem
Crusade II : 1187 – Salahuddin al-Ayyubi recaptured Jerusalem
Crusade III : 1291 – fought with King Richard the Lion Heart
Crusade IV : 2001 – Bush declared war on “Islamic terrorist”

Christian always find the way to destroy and emasculate muslims in every aspect of life (colonization, missionary, orientalisation)

4. Negative Image of Islam / fear of Islam
Misconception about war in Islam – colonization / terrorism.

Muslim fight only for the sake of Allah / syahid

That’s why Christian fear with Islam because Islam fight just for one path – jihad.

Islam as a threat to western – because of the comprehensiveness and tawhidic (rabbani) religion.

Labeled Islam / Muslim as a “ Terrorist”

5. Muslim weakness
Muslims are not unite among them / conflicts.

So, Christian take this advantage to put down Islam in the world.

The West have been able to control the world through application of latest technology and modern science.

Conquest Islamic countries (British, Portuguese, Spanish, Dutchman, etc. )

6. Attitude of Muslims toward other civilizations

The Islamic civilization is labeled as having most bloody borders and most likely to lose in any confrontations with other civilizations.

Muslim often do not accept the challenges seriously and lack od preparation.

Many civilizations have no problem with Islam but the force from the west change that situation.

7. Interference in Islamic Teachings.

Westerners force Islam (Muslim) to follow their rules / values according to Secularism and logical positivistic.

Attack Islam for its attitude toward women ( - : woman liberation)

Interfere in Human Rights & freedom, all aspects including religious life.

8. Western Media

Condemn Islam and muslims.

Bias reporting.

Based on Secularism in broadcasting

Steps to Re-Inventing Islamic civilization

1. Unity (Tawhid)

(a) Removal of dualism in educational system.

Separates between religious studies and modern sciences (based on secularism)

The system that produces either religious scholars (with no science) or scientists ( with no religious knowledge)

This system should be replaced by adopting fard ayn and fard kifayah approach towards knowledge.

(b) Removal of dualism in the approach of life

There are people who reject the world affairs and concentrate only in Hereafter.

While others – otherwise (emphasized on worldly life only)
Should be balance

(c) Removal of internal conflicts

One of the main reasons for our downfall is the division among the Muslims.

They were not united – because of religious sects and belief such as mazhabs, political or economic ideologies, parties, etc .

They need to re-unite to become stronger.

2. Rationalism

(a) Muslim must be willing to reject old practices, ideas and opinions which do not have sound and solid arguments.

Blind imitations (taqlid) should be checked and stopped if necessary – khurafat , etc.

(b) Muslims must be willing to explore new ideas, approaches within the framework of shariah and should not be rigid.

3. Reawakening the spirit to improve oneself

Allah will not change the ummah / the state unless every individual exert his effort to improve himself.

Regain the glorious civilization that they used to achieve.

Strengthen the Ummah physically and spiritually..

Steps in the Creations of an Authentic Islamic Science

1. Stop the worship like attitude towards modern science and technology which is prevalent today in much of the Islamic world.

Long rejected (scientism) by many of physicists and philosophers of science in the west itself.

Should base on independent Islamic world view whose roots are sunk in Allah revelation.

Only by basing oneself on the authentic Islamic perspective can the inferiority complex so widespread among the Muslim intelligentsia today be overcome and the ground readied for creative scientific activity related to the Islamic world view

2. Must in-depth study the traditional Islamic sources, philosophy, theology, cosmology and the like to formulate the Islamic World view.

This necessary task must be carried out within the frame work of the Islamic intellectual tradition itself.

Only the revival of the traditional Islamic world view can provide on authentic alternative to the current western world view which itself is now undergoing profound transformations.

Islamic science must be seen and studied from the Islamic point of view.

There must be a proper Islamic philosophy of science.

with its own methodologies, definitions and purpose while integrating all non-Muslim scholarship on this subject.

3. A larger member of Muslim students should allowed to study on the highest level the modern sciences especially the basic sciences (pure science).

Must confront any other school or mod of thought which lays claim to the knowledge of reality.

Muslims who are scientists but not functioning at the boundary of their science, they can at least point out the theoretical limitations of their science, the danger of scientism, the divorce of modern science from ethics and necessity for Muslims to emphasize the significance of ethics as much as possible.

Islamic thinkers, must help open up a place in the current Islamic mental space for the study of other possibilities of studying nature.

To revive the traditional Islamic Sciences whenever and wherever possible.
Especially in such field as medicine, pharmacology, agriculture etc.

Such an act would not only give greater confident to Muslims in their own culture, but also have immense social and economic consequences.

5. To re-wed science and ethics.
Not through the person of scientists, but through the very theoretical structures and philosophical foundations of science.

What is needed is a knowledge of the cosmos which is congruous and shares the same universe of meaning with ethical norms, which are drawn in all civilizations from the religions which have founded them




Muslim Contributions on :

 Natural Sciences
 Human Sciences
 Law and Jurisprudence
Natural Sciences
 Muslim Contribution

 AI- Haitham (Optic & physic)
 Ibn Sina (Medicine & Philosophy)
 Al-Biruni (Astronomy & philosophy)
 Al-Razi (Chemistry & Medicine)
 Ibn Hayyan (Chemistry )
 Al-Khawarizmi (mathematics & astronomy)
 Al-Zahrawi (Surgery / medicine)
 Al-Tabari (Medicine)
 Ibn Zuhri (Medicine)

Ibn aI-Haitham
965 – 1040 C.E
'Father of Modern Optic'

Ibn al-Haitham
 Bibliography

 Abu Ali Hasan Ibn AI- Haitham
 Born in 965 CE in Bashrah
 Was educated in Basrah, Baghdad, Egypt and Spain.
 Known in west as AI-Hazen
 Great Physicist and Investigator of Optics, mathematics and medicine.
 Also known as the ‘Father of Modern Optic’.
Ibn al-Haitham
 Contribution

 Books :
 Kitab AI- Manadhir ( Optical Thesaurus)
 Mizan AI-Hikmah (density of the Atmosphere )
 The list of his books runs to 200 or so, very few of which have survived.

 Field:
 Physic- Optics
 Medicine
 Mathematics
 Astronomy
Ibn al-Haitham

 Contribution

Physic- Optics
 His book in Physic- Optic: Kitab AI- Manadhir ( Optical Thesaurus)

 Anatomy and Physiology of eye.

 He is the first describe accurately every parts of the eye and binocular vision.
 Traces the function of the eye from the optic nerve.

 He discover the low of refraction

 He carried out the first examination on the dispersion of light into its constituent color.
Ibn al-Haitham

 Contribution

 He comprise the systematic observation of the physical phenomenon and the linkage with science theory.

 Kitab al-Manadhir was translated in Latin.

 dealing with the colours of sunset, shadows, eclipses, the rainbow and speculated on the physical nature of light.

 Gave a correct explanation of the apparent increase in size of the sun and the moon when near the horizon.

 He is known for the earliest use of the camera obscura
Ibn al-Haitham

 Contribution

 He contradicted the Ptolemy's and Euclid's theory.

 Ptolemy's and Euclid's theory : “Vision of the object are seen by rays of light emitting from the eyes”.

 AI - Haitham said: “The ray originated in the object of the vision not in the eye".

 His theory led to the invention of magnifying lens in Italy influence upon Western Science e.g on the work of Roger Bacon and Kepler.
Ibn al-Haitham

 Contribution

 Mathematics-physics

 He developed analytical geometry by establishing linkage between Algebra and Geometry.

 He also studied the mechanics of motion of a body.

 He was the first to maintain that a body moves perpetually unless an external force stop it or changes its direction of motion.

Ibn al-Haitham

 Contribution

 Astronomy

 His book:Mizan AI - Hikmah (density of the Atmosphere)
 has discussed the density of the atmosphere and developed a relation between it and the height.

 He also studied atmospheric refraction.

 He has also discussed the theories of attraction between masses, and it seems that he was aware of the magnitude of acceleration due to gravity.
Ibn al-Haitham

 Conclusion

 Ibn AI- Haitham’s influence on physical sciences in general and optics in particular.

 Carried out optical research, that been used in this new era in both theory and practical.

Ibn Sina (Avicenna)
981 CE- 1037 CE
'Doctor of the Doctors'

Ibn Sina
 Bibliography

 Abu Ali AI- Hussain Ibn Abdallah Ibn Sina.

 Born in 981 C.E. at Afshana near the Bukhara ( Uzbekistan)

 Known in Europe as Avicenna.

 Age 10- Become well versed in study of AI-Quran and various sciences.

 Study Philosophy from Abu Abdullah Natili (famous philosopher at that time)
Ibn Sina
 Bibliography

 While still young, he attained a degree of expertise in medicine.

 Age 17- he treat and fortunate curing Nooh Ibn Mansoor, The King of Bukhara. The king wished to reward him, but he only desired to use his uniquely stocked library.

 Age20-his father dead. Ibn Sina left Bukhara- travel to Jurjan and met with AI- Biruni.

 He than move to Ray and than to Hamadan.

Ibn Sina
 Bibliography

 At Hamadan, he started writing His book 'AI- Qanun Fi AI- Tibb '( The Law of Medicine)

 He treated the King of Hamadan (Shamsul aI- Daulah) from severe colic.

 Then he moved to Isphahan( Iran), finished and completed his writing.

 He also wrote ‘Kitab AI- Shifa’ ( book of Healing)

 He than returned back to Hamadan and died in 1037 C.E.
Ibn Sina
 Books :
 'Al-Qanun fi aI- Tibb'.
 ‘Kitab AI–Shifa`’

 Field:
 He as famous as Physician, Philosopher, Muslim jurisprudence, Encyclopedist, Mathematician and Astronomer.

 His Major Contribution is in Medical Sciences in His famous book - 'Al-Qanun fi al- Tibb'. In west known as ‘ Canon' .

 He wrote about 250 books and 166 out of them are related to Medical.
Ibn Sina
 Contribution

 AI- Qanun fi AI- Tibb '( The Law of Medicine)

 An giant encyclopedia of medicine.

 Remained supreme for 6 Centuries. Consist of:
- Over million words.
- Is arranged in systematic way.
- Important original contribution in recognition of the Phthisis and Tuberculosis
- In Pharmacology methods, he described about 760 drugs.
- First person describe Meningitis, Anatomy, Gynecology and Child Health.
Ibn Sina
 Contribution

 AI- Qanun fi AI- Tibb

 Describe every diseases from head to toe in detail.

 1st scientist discovered about anatomy of eye (Retina, Cornea, Sclera, Choroids, iris etc).

 1st scientist gave general principal of medicines includes Anatomy, hygiene, treatment, disease and therapeutics.

 Dealt with symptoms, diagnosis and prognosis.
Ibn Sina
 Contribution

 AI- Qanun fi AI- Tibb

 The Qanun points out the importance of dietetics, the influence of climate and environment on health and the surgical use of oral anaesthetics.

 He advised surgeons to treat cancer in its earliest stages, ensuring the removal of all diseased tissue.

 The arabic text of al-Qanun was published in Rome (1593) and was one of the earliest Arabic books to see print. It was also translated into Latin by Gerald of Cremona (12 C.E)
Ibn Sina
 Contribution

 AI- Qanun fi AI- Tibb

 He noted the close relationship between emotions and the physical condition and felt that music had a definite physical and psychological effect on patients.

 Of the many psychological disorders that he described in al-Qanun, one is of unusual interest; love sickness.

 The great doctor had a remedy : unite the sufferer with the beloved.
Ibn Sina
 Contribution

 Kitab AI –Shifa ( book of Healing)

 In Philosophy, Ibn Sina wrote: Kitab AI- Shifa` Describe the field of knowledge from Philosophy to Sciences.

 Ibn Sina classified the field into 2:
- Theoretical Knowledge
- Practical Knowledge

 Established 4 dimensions of Philosophical System (Logic, Physic, Metaphysic and Sufism)

 He reformulated the purely rational tradition of (Greek) within religious system of Islam.

Ibn Sina

 Contribution

 Mathematics

 Casting out the application of the variation of squares and cubes.

 He made several astronomical observations and devised a contrivance similar to the vernier, to increase the precision of instrumental readings.
Ibn Sina
 Contribution

 Physic

 Concept of different form of energy, heat, light and mechanical
 Concept of vacuum, force, and infinity.

 He made the important observation that is the perception of light is due to the emission of sort of particles by the luminous source, the speed of light must be finite.

 The profounder-The inter connection between time and motion, gravity and air thermo- meter.
Ibn Sina

 Conclusion

 Ibn Sina was a great Physician, Philosopher, Encyclopedist, Mathematician and Astronomer.

 Major Contribution is in Medical Sciences in His famous book - 'Al-Qanun fi aI- Tibb'. In west known as Canon' .

 In Philosophy- ‘Kitab AI- Shifa’ ;Philosophical Encylopedia

AI- Biruni
937 CE- 1048 CE
‘father of Astronomy '.

 Bibliography

 Abu Raihan Mohammad Ibn Ahmad AI- Biruni

 Was born in city of Kheva near Ural river, capital of the Khawarizm (Turkistan) in 937 C.E (362H)

 He is contemporary of well- known physician Ibn Sina.

 When he is 20, Sultan Mahmood Ghaznawi conquered his homeland. Sultan took him along in his journey to India.

 AI- Biruni learnt Hindu Philosophy, Mathematics, geography, religion from the Pandits.

 He learnt Sanskrit and died in 1048 CE.
 Books :

 'Kltab AI- Hind'.
 Qanun- al Masoodi (AI-Qanun al-Mas’udifi al - Haia wa al- Nujum),
 AI- Athar AI- Baqia
 Kitab al- Jamahir
 Kitab -AI- Saidina
 AI- Tafhim li- Awail Sina'at al-Tanjim

 Field:

 Astronomy, anthropology, cosmology, astrology, physics, mineralogy, pharmacology and history
 Contribution

 He recorded observation of his travels in 'Kitab aI- Hind'. - About the historical and social condition of Indian.

 He translated 2 Sanskrit books into Arabic:
- Sakaya - The creation of things.
- Patanjal- What happens after the spirit leaves the body.

 Contribution

 He wrote' Qanun- al Masoodi (AI-Qanun al-Mas’udi, fi al - Haia wa al- Nujum), dedicated for Sultan Masood.

 Contents:
- Theories of Astronomy, trigonometry, solar, lunar, and planetary motion and many more.

 AI- Athar AI- Baqia,:
 Discussed on history of nations, geographical knowledge, rotation of earth and correct values of latitudes and longitudes of various places.
 He also made considerable contribution to several aspects of physical and economic geography in this book.

 Contribution

 His scientific contribution is in Sciences (physics, math, Astronomy),

 Kitab al- Jamahir:
- The densities of 18 different stones.
- Deals with the properties of various stones
- Summation of geometric progression concerning the chess game led to the number: 1616 -1= 18,446,744,073,709,551,619.
- He develop method for trisection of angle and other problems which cannot be solved with a ruler and a compass alone.

 Contribution

 He questioned, whether the earth rotate around its axis or not.

 He was the first scientist done the experiments related to astronomical phenomenon.

 He stated that the speed of the sound is bigger than the speed of the light.

 He observed that the flowers have 3,4,5,6,18 petals, but never 7 or 9.

 Contribution

 Kitab -AI- Saidina.
- Extensive book of medical.
- Combines the existing Arabic Knowledge of the Medicine and the Indian Medicine.
- He wrote more than 150 books.
 His book “AI-Tafhim li- Awail Sina'at al-Tanjim” (summary of mathematics and Astronomy).

 Conclusion

 AI- Biruni:
- Greatest scientist in Islam
- His critical spirit, love and truth, and scientific approach were combined with the sense of toleration.
- He said: "Allah is Omniscient does not justify ignorance".

864 C.E – 930 C.E
‘Father of Sciences of Chemistry’

 Bibliography

 Abu Sakar Muhammad Zakariya al- Razi
 Was born in Ray (Iran)
 Learnt medicine, mathemathics, astronomy, chemistry and philosophy from a student of Hunayn ibn Ishaq .
 Also studied under Ibn Rabban.
 The practical experience gained at the well known Muqtadari hospital helped him in his chosen profession of medicine.
 Known in the West as " Rhazes"
 Great physician, chemist, philosopher - “Father of Science of Chemistry”

 Books:

 - Kitab al Hawi fi al- Tibb - ( the continents)
 - Kitab al-Mansuri - translated into Latin- 15th century
 - Kitab al- Taqsim al- ‘Ilal ( books of categorization of the causes of disease)
 - Kitab al- Jadri wa al- Hasbah ( treatise of Smallpox and measles)

 Field :
 Medicine , Chemistry and Philosophy.

 Contribution in Medicine :

 An authority in medicine second to Ibn Sina.

 “Kitab al hawi fi al tibb” is an enormous encyclopedia of medicine documenting his own original observations and experiments

 Discovered the reactions of eye's pupil due to the intensity of light.

 Responsible for differentiating between smallpox and measles (kitab “al-Judari wa al-Hasabah”)
 Contribution

 First to use alcohol for medical purposes

 Discussion on human anatomy, rheumatism

 Medical system -favored cure through correct and regulated food

 Health -influence of psychological factors.

 Great surgeon - first to use opium for anaesthesia

 Contribution in Chemistry

 Book: Kitab al- Asrar

 First to described and performed chemical processes known today- 'crystallization', 'distillation', 'calculation‘

 Portrayed a great detail several chemical reactions.

 First to produce Sulfuric acid together with some acids and he also prepared alcohol by fermenting sweet products.

 Divided chemical substances into 3 groups: animal, plants and mineral – valid until today

 Contribution

 His contribution as a philosopher is also well known.

 The basic elements in his philosophical system are the creator, spirit, matter, space and time as constituting a continuum are outstanding.

 He was a prolific author, who has left monumental treatises on numerous subjects. He as more than 200 outstanding scientific contributions to his credit, out of which about half deal with medicine and 21 concern alchemy. About 40 of his manuscripts are still extant in the museums and libraries of Iran, Paris, Britain and Bankipur.

 He also wrote in physics, mathematics, astronomy and optics.

Jabir Ibn Hayyan
Died 803 C.E
Father of Chemistry

Jabir Ibn Hayyan
 Bibliography

 Abu Musa Jabir Ibn Hayyan
 Known in the West as "Geber“

 He is reported to have studied under Imam jaafar Sadiq and the Umayyad prince Khalid ibn Yazid.

 In his early days, he practised medicine and was under the patronage of the Barmaki Vizir during the Abbasid Caliphate of Harun al-Rasyid.

 Wrote 100 monumental treatises on chemistry and alchemy

 Books: Kitab al- Kimya and Kitab alSab'een
 Field: Chemistry
Jabir Ibn Hayyan
 Contribution

 His various breakthrough - preparation of acid for the first time, notably nitric, hydrochloric, citric and tartaric acids and - emphasize on systematic experimentation

 Introduced experimental investigation into alchemy- which rapidly changed its character into modern chemistry

 On the ruins of his well-known laboratory remained after centuries, but his fame rests on over 100 monumental treatises, of which 22 relate to chemistry and alchemy.
Jabir Ibn Hayyan
 Contribution

 His contribution of fundamental importance to chemistry includes perfection of scientific techniques such as crystalization, distillation, calcination, sublimation and evaporation and development of several instruments for the same.

 Preparations of various metal, development of steel, dyeing of cloth and tanning of leather, vanishing of water proof cloth, use of manganese dioxide in glass making, prevention of rusting, lettering in gold, identification of paints, greases, etc.

Jabir Ibn Hayyan
 Contribution

 Several technical terms devised by Jabir - "Alkali", are today found in various European languages and has become part of scientific vocabulary
 The name ‘chemistry’ is derived from Arabic word ‘al-Kimya’

 He has describe 3 types of substances:

- Spirits- those which vaporize on heating; camphor, arsenic and ammonium chloride.
- Metals- gold, silver, copper, lead, iron
- Category of compounds which can be converted into powder.
Jabir Ibn Hayyan
 Contribution

 Although known as alchemist, he did not seem to have seriously pursued the preparation of noble metal as an alchemist, instead he devoted his effort to the development of basic chemical methods and study of mechanism of chemical reaction in themselves.

 He emphasized that, in chemical reaction, definite quantities of various substances are involved and thus can be said to have paved the way for the law of constant proportions.
Jabir Ibn Hayyan
 Contribution

 A large number of books are included in his corpus.

 Apart from chemistry, he also contributed to other sciences such as medicine and astronomy.

 His book on chemistry including “kitab al-Kimya” and “kitab al-Sab’een” were translated into Latin and various European languages.

770 C.E – 840 C.E
“The Founding Father of algebra”


 Bibliography

 Abu Abdullah Mohammad Ibn Musa al-Khawarizmi

 Was born at Khawarizm (Kheva), south of Aral sea.

 His parents had migrated to the place south of Baghdad. He flourished under al-Ma`mun at baghdad.

 Known in the West as ‘Algorizm’

 Expert in mathematics (algebra), astronomy and geography.
 Books :
 Al-Kitab al-Mukhtasar fi Hisab al-Jabr wa al-Muqabalah.
 Kitab Tarikh al-Jam’a wal-Tafreeq bil Hisab al-Hindi
 Kitab al-Tarikh
 Kitab al-Rukhmat
 Istikhraj Tarikh al-Yahud
 Kitab Surat al-Ard (Book on the shape of earth)

 Field :
 Mathematics (algebra), astronomy and geography.
 Contribution:

 He was mathematician, astronomer and geographer.

 He was the founder of several branches and basic concepts of mathematics.

 He influenced mathematical thought to a greater extent than any other medieval writer.

 His work on algebra was outstanding. He not only initiated in the subject in systematic form but he also developed it to extent of giving analytical solutions of linier and quadratic questions which established him as the founder of algebra.
 Contribution:

 The name Algebra has been derived from his famous book “al-Jabr wa al-Muqabilah”.

 He explained the use of zero, a numeral of fundamental importance developed by the Arabs.

 Similarly, he developed the decimal system so that the overall system of numerals, ‘algorithm’ or ‘algorizm’ is named after him.

 His Usage of Arabic terms in his writings has great impact upon western institutions such as algorithm (from his name khawarazmi himself)
 Contribution:

 Explaining four basic mathematical operations. i.e. adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing.

 He also developed at length several arithmetical procedures, including operations on fractions.

 It was through his work that the system of numerals was first introduced to Arabs and later to Europe, through its translations in European languages.
 Contribution:

 He developed in detail trigonometric tables containing the sine functions, which were probably extrapolated to tangent functions by Maslama.

 He also perfected the geometric representation of conic sections and developed the calculus of two errors, which practically led him to the concept of differentiation.

 He is also reported to have collaborated in the degree measurements ordered by Mamun al-Rashid were aimed at measuring of volume and circumference of the earth.
 Contribution:

 The development of astronomical tables by him was a significant contribution to the science of astronomy, on which he also wrote a book.

 The contribution of Khawarizmi to geography is also outstanding, in that not only did he revise Ptolemy's views on geography, but also corrected them in detail as well as his map of the world.

 His other contributions include original work related to clocks, sundials and astrolabes.
 Contribution:

 The influence of Khawarizmi on the growth of science, in general, and mathematics, astronomy and geography in particular, is well established in history.

 Several of his books were readily translated into a number of other languages, and, in fact, constituted the university textbooks till the 16th century.

 His approach was systematic and logical, and not only did he bring together the then prevailing knowledge on various branches of science, particularly mathematics, but also enriched it through his original contribution.

 No doubt he has been held in high repute throughout the centuries since then
 Contribution:

 Several of his books were translated into Latin in the early 12th century.

 In fact, his book on arithmetic, Kitab al-Jam'a wal- Tafreeq bil Hisab al-Hindi, was lost in Arabic but survived in a Latin translation.

 His book on algebra, Al-Maqala fi Hisab-al Jabr wa-al- Muqabilah, was also translated into Latin in the 12th century, and it was this translation which introduced this new science to the West "completely unknown till then".
 Contribution:

 He astronomical tables were also translated into European languages and, later, into Chinese.

 His geography captioned Kitab Surat-al-Ard, together with its maps, was also translated.

 In addition, he wrote a book on the Jewish calendar Istikhraj Tarikh al-Yahud, and two books on the astrolabe.

 He also wrote Kitab al-Tarikh and his book on sun-dials was captioned Kitab al-Rukhmat, but both of them have been lost.

936 C.E – 1013 C.E
‘Father of Modern Surgery’
 Bibliography

 Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi

 Known in the West as ‘Abulcasis’

 Recognized as ‘Father of Modern Surgery’

 Books : Al-Tasrif

 Field : Medicine / Surgery
 Contribution:

 Description in detail various aspects of surgical treatment.

 He performed and perfected several delicate operations including removal of dead fetus.

 Al-Tasrif contains, among others, numerous diagrams and illustrations of surgical instruments in use or developed by him.

 Al-Tasrif was first translated by Gherard of Cremona into Latin in the Middle Ages. It was followed by several other editors in Europe.
 Contribution:

 He was inventor of several surgical instruments, of which three are notable:

 An instrument foe external examination of the ear.
 An instrument for internal inspection of the urethra.
 And instrument for applying or removing foreign bodies from the throat.

838 C.E – 870 C.E
Physician, Mathematician, Sociology

 Bibliography

 Abu al-Hasan Ali bin Sahl Rabban al-Tabari

 Originally from jew family, later he embraced Islam.

 Zakariya al-Razi (Rhazes) was his student.

 Books : Firdaus al-Hikmah

 Field : Medicine, philosophy, mathematics and astronomy.
 Contribution :

 Incorporated for the first time, medical encyclopedia for all branches of medical science in its folds.

 Description of all causes relating to eruption of diseases right from head to toe.

Abu Marwan Ibn Zuhr
1091 C.E - 1161 C.E

Abu Marwan Ibn Zuhr
 Bibliography

 Abu Marwan Abdul Malik Ibn Zuhr

 Known in the west as ‘Avenzoar’

 Books :
 Kitab al-Taisir fi al-Maudawat wa al-Tadbir (Book of Simplification concerning Therapeutics and Diet)
 Kitab al-Iqtisad fi Islah al-Anfus wa al-Ajsad (Book of the Middle Course concerning the Reformation of Soul and the Bodies)
 Kitab al-Aghthiya` (Book on Foodstuffs)

 Field : Medicine
Abu Marwan Ibn Zuhr
 Contribution :

 He described correctly for the first time scabies, the itch mite and may thus be regarded as the first parasitologist.

 He also gave clinical descriptions of mediastinal tumors, intestinal phthisis, inflammation of the middle ear, pericarditis, etc.
Abu Marwan Ibn Zuhr
 Contribution

 His books give in detail pathological conditions followed by therapy, a summary of diseases, therapeutics and hygiene written specially for the benefit of the layman.

 He also described different types of food and drugs and their effect on health.


 Ibn Khaldun
 Al-Farabi
 Al-Ghazali

Ibn Khaldun
1332-1395 C.E

Ibn Khaldun
 Bibliography

 Abd al-Rahman Ibn Mohammad is generally known as Ibn Khaldun after a remote ancestor.

 His parents, originally Yemenite Arabs, had settled in Spain, but after the fall of Seville, had migrated to Tunisia.

 He was born in Tunisia in 1332 C.E., where he received his early education and where, still in his teens, he entered the service of the Egyptian ruler Sultan Barquq.

 His thirst for advanced knowledge and a better academic setting soon made him leave this service and migrate to Fez.

 This was followed by a long period of unrest marked by contemporary political rivalries affecting his career.
Ibn Khaldun
 Bibliography

 This turbulent period also included a three year refuge in a small village Qalat Ibn Salama in Algeria, which provided him with the opportunity to write Muqaddimah, the first volume of his world history that won him an immortal place among historians, sociologists and philosophers.

 The uncertainty of his career still continued, with Egypt becoming his final abode where he spent his last 24 years.

 Here he lived a life of fame and respect, marked by his appointment as the Chief Malakite Judge and lecturing at the Al-Azhar University, but envy caused his removal from his high judicial office as many as five times.
Ibn Khaldun

 Books :
 Muqaddimah or 'Prolegomena',
 Kitab al-I'bar
 Al-Tasrif

 Field :
 Philosophy of history and sociology
Ibn Khaldun

 Contribution

 Al-Muqaddimah

 Al- Muqaddimah or 'Prolegomena‘(this is a first volume aimed at an analysis of historical events of world history) was based on Ibn Khaldun's unique approach and original contribution and became a masterpiece in literature on philosophy of history and sociology.

 The chief concern of this monumental work was to identify psychological, economic, environmental and social facts that contribute to the advancement of human civilization and the currents of history.

 In this context, he analysed the dynamics of group relationships and showed how group-feelings, al-'Asabiyya, give rise to the ascent of a new civilisation and political power and how, later on, its diffusion into a more general civilization invites the advent of a still new 'Asabiyya in its pristine form.
Ibn Khaldun

 Contribution

 He identified an almost rhythmic repetition of rise and fall in human civilization, and analysed factors contributing to it.

 His contribution to history is marked by the fact that, unlike most earlier writers interpreting history largely in a political context, he emphasised environmental, sociological, psychological and economic factors governing the apparent events.

 This revolutionised the science of history and also laid the foundation of Umraniyat (Sociology).

Ibn Khaldun

 Contribution

 the other volumes of his world history Kitab al-I'bar deal with the history of Arabs, contemporary Muslim rulers, contemporary European rulers, ancient history of Arabs, Jews, Greeks, Romans, Persians, etc.,

 Islamic History, Egyptian history and North-African history, especially that of Berbers and tribes living in the adjoining areas.

 The last volume deals largely with the events of his own life and is known as Al-Tasrif.

 This was also written in a scientific manner and initiated a new analytical tradition in the art of writing autobiography.

 A book on mathematics written by him is not extant.
Ibn Khaldun

 Conclusion

 Ibn Khaldun's influence on the subject of history, philosophy of history, sociology, political science and education has remained paramount ever since his life.

 His books have been translated into many languages, both in the East and the West, and have inspired subsequent development of these sciences.

 For instance, Prof. Gum Ploughs and Kolosio consider Muqaddimah as superior in scholarship to Machiavelli's The Prince written a century later, as the forrner bases the diagnosis more on cultural, sociological, economic and psychological factors.

870 C.E – 950 C.E
 Bibliography

 Abu Nasr Mohammad Ibn al-Farakh al-Farabi was born in a small village Wasij, near Farab in Turkistan in 259 A.H. (870 C.E.).
 His parents were originally of Persian descent, but his ancestors had migrated to Turkistan.
 Known as al-Phrarabius in Europe, Farabi was the son of a general.
 He completed his earlier education at Farab and Bukhara but, later on, he went to Baghdad for higher studies, where he studied and worked for a long time viz., from 901 C.E. to 942 C.E.
 During this period he acquired mastery over several languages as well as various branches of knowledge and technology.
 He lived through the reign of six Abbasid Caliphs.
 Bibliography

 As a philosopher and scientist, he acquired great proficiency in various branches of learning and is reported to have been an expert in different languages.
 Farabi travelled to many distant lands and studied for some time in Damascus and Egypt, but repeatedly came back to Baghdad, until he visited Saif al-Daula's court in Halab (Allepo).
 He became one of the constant companions of the King, and it was here at Halab that his fame spread far and wide.
 During his early years he was a Qadi (Judge), but later on the took up teaching as his profession.
 During the course of his career, he had suffered great hardships and at one time was the caretaker of a garden.
 He died a bachelor in Damascus in 339 A.H./950 C.E. at the age of 80 years.
 Books
 Ara Ahl al-Madina al-Fadila
 Fusus al-Hikam
 Kitab al-lhsa al 'Ulum
 Kitab al-Musiqa

 Field :
 Major contribution on philosophy, logic and sociology
 Other contribution on medicine, mathematics and music
 Contribution

 Farabi contributed considerably to science, philosophy, logic, sociology, medicine, mathematics and music.

 His major contributions seem to be in philosophy, logic and sociology and, of course, stands out as an Encyclopedist.

 As a philosopher, he may be classed as a Neoplatonist who tried to synthesize Platonism and Aristotelism with theology and he wrote such rich commentaries on Aristotle's physics, meteorology, logic, etc., in addition to a large number of books on several other subjects embodying his original contribution, that he came to be known as the 'Second Teacher' (al-Mou'allim al-Thani) Aristotle being the First.

 One of the important contributions of Farabi was to make the study of logic more easy by dividing it into two categories viz., Takhayyul (idea) and Thubut (proof).
 Contribution

 In sociology he wrote several books out of which Ara Ahl al-Madina al-Fadila became famous.

 His books on psychology and metaphysics were largely based on his own work.

 He also wrote a book on music, captioned Kitab al-Musiqa.

 He was a great expert in the art and science of music and invented several musical instruments, besides contributing to the knowledge of musical notes.

 It has been reported that he could play his instrument so well as to make people laugh or weep at will. In physics he demonstrated the existence of void.
 Contribution

 Although many of his books have been lost, 117 are known, out of which 43 are on logic, 11 on metaphysics, 7 on ethics, 7 on political science, 17 on music, medicine and sociology, while 11 are commentaries.

 Some of his more famous books include the book Fusus al-Hikam, which remained a text book of philosophy for several centuries at various centres of learning and is still taught at some of the institutions in the East.

 The book Kitab al-lhsa al 'Ulum discusses classification and fundamental principles of science in a unique and useful manner.

 The book Ara Ahl al-Madina al- Fadila 'The Model City' is a significant early contribution to sociology snd political science.
 Conclusion

 Farabi exercised great influence on science and knowledge for several centuries.

 Unfortunately, the book Theology of Aristotle, as was available to him at that time was regarded by him as genuine, although later on it turned out to be the work of some Neoplatonic writer.

 Despite this, he was regarded the Second Teacher in philosophy for centuries and his work, aimed at synthesis of philosophy and sufism, paved the way for Ibn Sina's work.

1058 C.E – 1128 C.E
 Bibliography

 Abu Hamid Ibn Muhammad Ibn Muhammad al-Tusi al-Shafi'i al-Ghazali was born in 1058 C.E. in Khorasan, Iran.

 His father died while he was still very young but he had the opportunity of getting education in the prevalent curriculum at Nishapur and Baghdad.

 Soon he acquired a high standard of scholarship in religion and philosophy and was honoured by his appointment as a Professor at the Nizamiyah University of Baghdad, which was recognised as one of the most reputed institutions of learning in the golden era of Muslim history.
 Bibliography

 After a few years, however, he gave up his academic pursuits and worldly interests and became a wandering ascetic.

 This was a process (period) of mystical transformation. Later, he resumed his teaching duties, but again left these.

 An era of solitary life, devoted to contemplation and writing then ensued, which led to the authorship of a number of everlasting books.

 He died in 1128 C.E. at Baghdad.
 Books :

 Ihya al-'Ulum al-Deen (The Rivival of the Religious Sciences),
 Tuhafut al-Falasifa (The Incoherence of the Philosophers),
 Al-Munqiz min al-Dhalal "Deliverance from Error".
 The Beginning of Guidance and his Autobiography

 Field :
 Islamic Jurisprudence, philosophy and sufism.

 Abdel Rahman Badawi, an Egyptian scholar, prepared a comprehensive list of Ghazali's works under 457 titles:

 from 1 to 72: works definitely written by Ghazali
 from 73 to 95: works which are doubtful to be attributed to him
 96 - 127: works which are not those of Ghazali with most certainty
 128 - 224: are the name of the Chapters or Sections of Ghazali's books, which are mistakenly called as an single book of him
 225 - 273: books which are written by other authors regarding Ghazali's works
 274 - 389: books of other unknown scholars/writers regarding Ghazali's personality and state
 389 - 457: the name of the manuscripts of Ghazali's works in different libraries of the world

 The following list is short list of his Major works:

 Theology
 al-Munqidh min al-dalal
 Hujjat al-Haq (Proof of the Truth)
 al-Iqtisad fil-i`tiqad (Median in Belief)
 al-Risala al-Qudsiyya (The Jerusalem Epistle)
 al-maqsad al-asna fi sharah asma' Allahu al-husna (The best means in explaining Allah's Beautiful Names)
 Jawahir al-Qur'an wa duraruh (Jewels of the Qur'an and its Pearls)
 Mishkat al-Anwar (The Niche of Lights)
 Kitab al-arba'in fi usul al-din


 Philosophy
 Maqasid al falasifa (Aims of Philosophers) [written in the beginning of his life, in favour of philosophy and presenting the basic theories in Philosophy, mostly influenced by Avicenna's works]
 Tahafut al-Falasifa (Incoherence of philosophers), [in this book he refutes the Greek Philosophy aiming at Avicenna and Al-Farabi; and of which Ibn Rushd wrote his famous refutation Tahafut al-tahafut (The Incoherence of the Incoherence) ]
 al-Qistas al-mustaqim (The Correct Balance)

 Logic
 Miyar al-Ilm fi fan al-mantiq (Criterion of Knowledge in Logic)
 Mihakk al-nazar f'l-mantiq (The Touchstone of Proof in Logic)
 al-Qistas al-mustaqim (The Correct Balance)
 Jurisprudence
 al-Mustasfa fi 'ilm al-isul (The Clarified in Legal Theory)
 Al-wasit fi al-mathab (The medium in the Jurisprudential school)
 Kitab tahzib al-Isul (Prunning on Legal Theory)
 Fatawy al-Ghazali (Verdicts of al-Ghazali)
 Asas al-Qiyas (foundation of Analogical reasoning).

 Sufism
 Mizan al-'amal (Criterion of Action)
 Ihya'ul ulum al-din, "Revival of Religious Sciences", Ghazali's most important work
 Kimiya-ye sa'ādat (The Alchemy of Happiness)
 Bidayat al-hidayah (Begining of Guidance)
 Nasihat al-muluk (Counseling Kings) [in Persian]
 al-Munqidh min al-dalal (Rescuer from Error)
 Sir al-'alamian wa kashf ma' fi al-darian (Secret of the two worlds and uncovering what is two abodes)

 Contribution

 Ghazali's major contribution lies in religion, philosophy and sufism.

 A number of Muslim philosophers had been following and developing several viewpoints of Greek philosophy, including the Neoplatonic philosophy, and this was leading to conflict with several Islamic teachings.

 On the other hand, the movement of sufism was assuming such excessive proportions as to avoid observance of obligatory prayers and duties of Islam.

 Based on his unquestionable scholarship and personal mystical experience, Ghazali sought to rectify these trends, both in philosophy and sufism
 Contribution

 In philosophy, Ghazali upheld the approach of mathematics and exact sciences as essentially correct.

 However, he adopted the techniques of Aristotelian logic and the Neoplatonic procedures and employed these very tools to lay bare the flaws and lacunae of the then prevalent Neoplatonic philosophy and to diminish the negative influences of Aristotelianism and excessive rationalism.

 In contrast to some of the Muslim philosophers, e.g., Farabi, he portrayed the inability of reason to comprehend the absolute and the infinite.

 Reason could not transcend the finite and was limited to the observation of the relative.
 Contribution

 Also, several Muslim philosophers had held that the universe was finite in space but infinite in time.

 Ghazali argued that an infinite time was related to an infinite space.

 With his clarity of thought and force of argument, he was able to create a balance between religion and reason, and identified their respective spheres as being the infinite and the finite, respectively.
 Contribution

 In religion, particularly mysticism, he cleansed the approach of sufism of its excesses and reestablished the authority of the orthodox religion.

 Yet, he stressed the importance of genuine sufism, which he maintained was the path to attain the absolute truth.
 Contribution

 He was a prolific writer.

 His immortal books include
- Tuhafut al-Falasifa (The Incoherence of the Philosophers),
- Ihya al-'Ulum al-Deen (The Rivival of the Religious Sciences),
- "The Beginning of Guidance and his Autobiography",
- "Deliverance from Error".

 Some of his works were translated into European languages in the Middle Ages.

 He also wrote a summary of astronomy.

 Conclusion

 Ghazali's influence was deep and everlasting.

 He is one of the greatest theologians of Islam.

 His theological doctrines penetrated Europe, influenced Jewish and Christian Scholasticism and several of his arguments seem to have been adopted by St. Thomas Aquinas in order to similarly reestablish the authority of orthodox Christian religion in the West.

 So forceful was his argument in the favour of religion that he was accused of damaging the cause of philosophy and, in the Muslim Spain, Ibn Rushd (Averros) wrote a rejoinder to his Tuhafut.

 Imam Al-Syafi’I
 Imam Malik bin Anas
 Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal

Imam al-Syafi’i
Imam al-Syafi’i
 Bibliography

 He is Abdullah Mohamed Ibn Idris Al Shafi’i, a prominent Imam who was a descendant from the Hashimi family of Quraysh tribe, which Prophet Mohamed (PBIUH) came from.

He is known as the revivalist of the second century, for he was the one who put the fundamental of jurisprudence; science of (usul al Fiqh).

At the age of 10, Al Shafi’i mother sent him to Mekkah, near his tribal ancestry. After entrusting him initially in the care of a relative, she followed him there to keep an eye on his studies.
Imam al-Syafi’i
 As he could not afford enough writing material, Al Shaafi’i used to go to the governor’s offices in search of paper that had already been used. On the blank side of the paper, he would do his lessons.

 He memorized the Qur’an at a very young age.

 In order to improve his knowledge of Arabic, he went deep into the desert to join the Bedouin tribe of Huthail, who were renowned for the best standard of literary Arabic.

 He studied poetry and learnt their prose reporting and stories. He accompanied the tribe on nomadic travels, until he mastered all that was there to learn.

 He also learnt archery and became very skilful; he could hit the target 10 times out of 10.

Imam al-Syafi’i
 Books :
 Al-Umm (Fiqh)
 Al-Risalah (Usul al-Fiqh)

 Field:
 Fiqh , Usul al-Fiqh , Hadith and Akidah
Imam al-Syafi’i
 On his return to Mekkah Al Shafi’i continued studying.

 At the age of 20 he had completed all that its scholars has to teach, but this thirst for knowledge was not quenched.

 So, he traveled to Madinah to learn from Imam Malik.

 Al Shafi’i wished to have a foretaste of what he would be learning. He borrowed Al-Muwatta’ to read which even fueled him more made him more eager to study under Imam Malik.

Imam al-Syafi’i
 Al-Shafi’i stayed very closed to Malik for nine years, he never left him during those nine years except to visit his mother, or to stay for a short while with some bedouin tribes.

 The last three years at Malik’s study circle were doubly fruitful because the eminent Iraqi scholar. Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaibani (132-189H) who recorded all the Hanafi scholarship had come to study under Malik.

Imam al-Syafi’i
 Imam Malik used to care more and give more attention to poor and needy students. Al-Shafi’i was one of them.

 When Malik died (179H), Al-Shafi’i returned to Mekkah hoping to earn his living.

 Some people asked the governor of Yemen to help Al-Shafi’i, and so he took him to Yemen where he was appointed justice in the city of Najran.

 The people there soon realised that they had a judge who was devoted to justice, unwilling to swerve from it for any favor or pressure.

 They respected him so much and learnt a great deal from him.

Imam al-Syafi’i
 In his fifth years at Najran, Al-Shafi’i’s mettle was tasted when a strong-fisted governor took over.

 Al-Shafi’i did not spare him from criticism whenever the occasion arose.

 In the process of curbing the governor’s injustice, Al-Shafi’i earned his enmity.

Imam al-Syafi’i
 The governor wrote to Caliph Al-Rasheed in Baghdad, accusing Al-Shafi’i of backing a revolt by people loyal to the Alawis, the descendants of Ali ibn Talib (may Allah be pleased with him). He said:
 ‘I have no authority over this man, and he achieves by his tongue much more than a fighter can achieve with this sword.’

Was this accusation false? Indeed it was, for Al-Shafi’i never supported or advocated any revolt or rebellion against the Caliph.

 On the contrary he used to love the Alawis, as they were the descendants of Ali, (may Allah be pleased with him), and Fatimah, (,ay Allah be pleased with her), the daughter of Prophet Mohammad, (PBUH).

Imam al-Syafi’i
 At the age of 34, Imam Al-Shafi’i was brought in 184H before the Caliph in Baghdad, in fetters and chains.

 Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaibani, the Chief Justice was his the only of his advisers and top officials present at the court.

 Two factors affected the Caliph’s Judgement: a lucid defence by the accused himself; and Chief Justice Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaibani’s Testimony.

 Al-Shafi’i pointed out that his scholarship was known to the Chief Justice, who described Al-Shafi’i as a scholar of eminence who would not be involved in such matters.
Imam al-Syafi’i
 Caliph Al-Rasheed, known to be kind and merciful, saw in this testimony his way out to spare Al-Shafi’i.

 He told Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaibani to take Al-Shafi’i to his home while he thought the matter over. There the case ended. The charge was never revived.

 The governor who had rid himself of a fearless critic was no longer interested what happened to him.

Imam al-Syafi’i
 This episode was a blessing in disguise because it brought Al-Shafi’i back on track in his quest for knowledge.

 Al-Shafi’i stayed with Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaibani and read under his guidance all the books that he had written, recording the Fiqh of Imam Abu Haneefah ( one of the Four grand Imams) and his disciples.

 After two years, Al Shaafi’i left Baghdad, he said:
‘I carried with me a whole camel load of books, all of which I learnt directly form Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan.’
Imam al-Syafi’i
 Al-Shafi’i learnt the Fiqh in Baghdad as well as memorized the Ahadith that were known in Iraq, but not in Madinah or Mekkah.

 He also entered into debate with many scholars, speaking as a student of Imam Malik, but he would only debate with lesser scholars than Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaibani, whom he gave great respect.

Imam al-Syafi’i
 Among the most important characteristic of Al-Shafi’i was his native intelligence that gave him an easy and good grasp of even the most difficult of questions.

 He always studied matters in depth, so as to reach the right solution and the right answer regarding any question put to him.

 His cleverness was coupled with a superb memory and ready argument.
Imam al-Syafi’i
 When discussing any matter, Imam Al-Shafi’i would put it with a wealth of meanings that he always found ready to hand, his explanation was always rich and to the point.

 Al-Shafi’i had a unique exquisite literary style, lucidity of expression and command over the language.

 His very clear use of words made him a influential speaker. One of his students said:
‘Every scholar gives more in his books than when you meet him personally, except for Al-Shafi’i whose verbal discussion gives you more than his books.’
Imam al-Syafi’i
 Imam Al-Shafi’i’s books are among the finest in style, eloquence and presentation.

Another quality that positioned Al-Shafi’i at the highest rank of Islamic scholars was his persistent devotion and sincerity in the pursuit of truth, and declaring it even if it was unpopular, or at variance with his teacher, to whom he was most devoted.

 His gratitude to Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan, who had saved him from the Caliph’s wrath, did not prevent him from supporting the Madinan scholars’ views. No one ever accused him of rejecting true evidence.

 Imam Al-Shafi’i used to urge his students to devote both their time and effort in studying the Hadith.
Imam al-Syafi’i
 Imam Al-Shafi’i never got furious while debating with anyone, because he was not interested in scoring points or winning people’s admiration, but rather in reaching the truth. And if his opponent were right, he would not find any difficulty accepting his view.

He was quoted as saying:
 ‘I wish people would learn what I have to give, without it being attributed to me. In this way, I will receive the reward for it from Allah, without having people’s praise.’

 With such noble qualities and wealth or knowledge, no wonder that scholars placed Imam Muhammad ibn Idris Al-Shafi’i in the highest rank.

Imam Malik bin Anas
Imam Malik bin Anas
 ABU ABDULLAH, Malik bin Anas, was born in Medina in the year 715 AD. He comes from a Yemeni origin, but his grandfather settled in Medina after embracing Islam.

 He received his education in Medina, which was the center of Islamic learning, and where the immediate descendants of the Companions of Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) lived.

 Imam Malik devoted his entire interest to the study of Fiqh.

 It is said that he sought out over three hundred Sahaba (those who saw the Companions of the Holy Prophet). From them he acquired the knowledge of the Holy Prophet's Hadith- and the Holy Prophet's Deeds, - Sunnah.
Imam Malik bin Anas
 Book :
 Al-Muwatta`

 Field :
 Hadith and Fiqh
Imam Malik bin Anas
 The Imam was known throughout the world of Islam for his self-control and great patience. One a band of Kharijis armed with swords forced their way into a mosque of Kufa, where he was praying, people ran out of the mosque in panic but he stayed there undismayed.

 It was customary with all those who waited on Khalifah Mansur in his durbar to kiss his hands but Imam Malik never stooped to his humiliation.

 He gave great respect to the learned people and once, when Imam Abu Hanifa came to see him, he offered him his own seat.

 Imam Malik studied Fiqh through one hundred Sheikhs who were residing in the city of the Prophet (PBUH) at the time.

 Among Imam Malik's work is the great book entitled Kitab-al-Muwatta, which is the earliest surviving book of Islamic law and Hadith. It quotes Sayings as well as the practices according to the Sunnah of Prophet Mohammad (PBUH).
Imam Malik bin Anas
 Although Imam Malik wrote many treatises dealing with religion and ethics, Kitab-al-Muwatta is considered as the most important among his writings.

 Imam Malik had originally recorded ten thousand Ahadith in this book, but in a revised edition the Imam reduced the number to only one hundred and seventy-two.

 Imam Malik was well known for his piety and honesty and courageously stood up, and was prepared to bear stand in the face of all difficulties for his convictions.
 For example, when the governor of Medina forced people to take the oath of allegiance to Khalifah al-Mansour, Imam Malik issued a Fatwa that such an oath was not binding, because it was given under pressure.

 This encouraged a lot of people to be strong and courage to express their opposition, but the Imam was arrested, found guilty of defiance and publicly flogged.
Imam Malik bin Anas
 When al-Mansour, learnt of this outrage, he apologized to the Imam and dismissed the governor.

 Sometime later the Khalifah sent him three thousand Dinars for his travelling expenses and invited him to come and reside in Baghdad.

 Imam Malik refused the offer and indicated that he preferred to continue his residence in Medina where the Holy Prophet was buried.

 When the Khalifah Haroun-al-Rasheed visited Medina when he came to perform Hajj, he asked Imam Malik to visit him and give a lecture. But Imam Malik politely refused to go to the ruler and instead invited him to join the class of students to whom he delivered regular lectures.

 And indeed the Khalifa, accompanied by his two sons, accepted the invitation and sat among the students to hear the Imam's lecture.
Imam Malik bin Anas
 Imam Malik died in the year 795 AD at Medina and was buried in the famous al-Baqie cemetery in the Medina with the noble Prophet Companions.

 Imam Malik's followers and disciples developed the Fiqh science based on his books which came to be known as the Maliki Madhhab (approach).

 Most of the people who follow the Maliki Madhab are found in North and West Africa, - Tunis, Algeria, Morocco and Egypt.

Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal
Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal
 Imam Ahmad ibn Mohamed Ibn Hanbal, Abu `Abd Allah al-Dhuhli Al-Shaybani al-Marwazi al-Baghdadi (d. 241).

 Imam Ahmed ibn Hanbal (780 - 855) was among the great Muslim scholars and theologians. He is the founder of the Hanbali school of fiqh. His full name was Ahmed bin Muhammad Hanbal.

 Imam Hanbal was born in Central Asia to Arab parents in 780. After his father died, he moved to Iraq and studied extensively in Baghdad, and later used his travels for further education.

 He was mainly interested in the science of Hadith and traveled extensively through Iraq, Syria, and Arabia studying religion and collecting traditions of Prophet Mohammad (PBUH).

Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal
 Books :
 Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal
 Fadha`il al-Sahabah

 Field:
 Hadith, Fiqh, Akidah.
Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal
 His travels lasted several years.

 Upon returning home, he studied under Imam Shafi on Islamic law. Imam Hambal was very devoted to traditional views and was opposed to innovations in Islamic law.

 Imam ibn Hanbal became very well known all, and his teachings spread worldwide.

 His learning, piety and unswerving faithfulness to traditions gathered a lot if admirers around him.

Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal
 From the biographical notice on Imam Ahmad in the Reliance of the Traveler:

"Out of piety, Imam Ahmad never gave a formal legal opinion (fatwa) while Imam Shafi`i was in Iraq, and when he later formulated his school of jurisprudence, he mainly drew on clear texts from the holy [Qur’an], Hadith, and scholarly agreement, with relatively little expansion from analogical reasoning (qiyâs). He was probably the most learned in the sciences of Hadith of the four great Imams of Sacred Law; Imam Abu Hanifah, Imam Al Shafi`i`, Imam Malik, and him Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal
Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal
 His students included many of the foremost scholars of Hadith. Abu Dawud said of him: ‘Ahmad’s gatherings were gatherings of the afterlife: nothing of this world was mentioned. Never once did I hear him mention this-worldly things.’

... Imam Ahmad never once missed praying in the night, and used to recite the entire [Qur’an] daily. Imam Ahmad was imprisoned and subjected to various forms of torture for twenty-eight months under the Abbasid caliph al-Mu`tasim in an effort to force him to publicly support the [Mu`tazila] position that the Holy [Qur’an] was created, but the Imam refused to give up the belief that the [Qur’an] is the uncreated word of Allah, after which Allah delivered and vindicated him.

… When Imam Ahmad died in 241/855, he was accompanied to his resting place by a funeral procession of eight hundred thousand men and sixty thousand women, marking the departure of the last of the four great mujtahid Imams of Islam."

Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal
 Al-Dhahabi describes him saying:

"The true Sheikh of Islam and leader of the Muslims at his time, the Hadith master and proof of the Religion. He took Hadith from Hushaym, Ibrahim ibn Sa`d, Sufyan ibn `Uyayna, `Abbad ibn `Abbad, Yahya Ibn Abi Za’ida, and their layer. From him narrated al-Bukhari [two Hadiths in the Sahih], Muslim [22], Abu Dawud [254], Abu Zur`a, Mutayyan, `Abd Allah ibn Ahmad, Abu al-Qasim al-Baghawi, and a huge array of scholars. His father was a soldier one of those who called to Islam and he died young."- Al-Dhahabi continues.

Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal
 Ibn al-Jawzi relates in al-Manaaqib (p. 192):

"Imaam Ahmad was the foremost among the Imams in collecting the Sunnah and sticking to it."

`Abd Allah ibn Ahmad said:

"I heard Abu Zur`a [al-Razi] say: ‘Your father had memorized a million Hadiths, which I rehearsed with him according to topic.’"

Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal
 Hanbal said:

"I heard Abu `Abd Allah say: ‘I memorized everything which I heard from Hushaym when he was alive.’"

Ibrahim al-Harbi said:

"I held Ahmad as one for whom Allah had gathered up the combined knowledge of the first and the last."

Imam al-Shafi`i said:

"You (addressing Imaam Ahmad ibn Hanbal) are more knowledgeable about Hadith than I, so when a hadith is sahih (correct), inform me of it, whether it is from Kufah, Basrah or Syria, so that I may take the view of the hadith, as long as it is sahih.

Related by Ibn Abi Haatim in Aadaab ash-Shaafi'i (pp. 94-5),

Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal
 Harmala said:

"I heard Imaam al-Shafi`i say: ‘I left Baghdad and did not leave behind me anyone more virtuous (afdal), more learned (a`lam), more knowledgeable (afqah) than Ahmad ibn Hanbal.’"

`Ali ibn al-Madini said about Imam Ahmed Ibn Hanbal:

"Truly, Allah reinforced this Religion with Abu Bakr al-Siddiq the day of the Great Apostasy (al-Ridda), and He reinforced it with Ahmad ibn Hanbal the day of the Inquisition (al-Mihna)."

Abu `Ubayd said:

"The Science at its peak is in the custody of four men, of whom Ahmad ibn Hanbal is the most knowledgeable."

Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal
 Ibn Ma`in said, as related by `Abbas [al-Duri]:

"They meant for me to be like Ahmad, but by Allah! I shall never in my life compare to him."

A lot of great scholars who followed the approach (Madhab) of Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal.

Ibn ul-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah says in his book Imam Bukhari, Imaam Muslim and Imaam Abu Dawood were strong followers of Imam Ahmad Ibn Hambal. Among other great Imams who followed the teachings of Imam Ahmad include Shaikh-ul-Islam Taqi ad-Deen Ibn Taymiyyah, Abdul Qadir Jillaani, Ibn ul-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah, Al-Haafidh Zaynud-Deen Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali, Imam Muhammed Bin Abdul Wahab and Imam Ibn ul Jawzi.

Ibn al-Jawzi narrates from Bilal al-Khawass that the latter met al-Khidr and asked him: "What do you think of al-Shafi`i?" He said: "One of the Pillar-Saints (Awtâd)." " What about Ahmad Ibn Hanbal?" "He is a Siddiq."

Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal
 Ibn al-Jawzi also narrates that Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal said:

"Whoever rejects a statement of Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) is on the brink of destruction." and was the foremost in sticking to the Sunna and sahih hadith.

Among Imam ibn Hanbal’s works is the great encyclopedia of Traditions called Musnad, collected by his son from his lectures and amplified by supplements - containing over twenty eight thousand traditions. Other works include Kitab-us-Salat, on the Discipline of Prayer and Kitab-us-Sunnah, on the Traditions of Prophet Mohammad (PBUH).

Main sources: al-Dhahabi, Siyar A`lam al-Nubala’ 9:434-547 #1876 and Tadhkira al-Huffaz 2:431 #438.

 wassalam



Contents :
• Islamic Civilization
• The Characteristics of Civilization
• Seven Stages to Process of Rise and Fall
• Factors behind Rise and Fall
• Fall of Islamic Civilization from the Quranic Perspective

Islamic Civilization

• Meaning :Islamic Civilization

• It is called “al-Tamaddun” ( التمدن) , “al-Madaniyyah” ( المدنبة) or “al-Daynunah” ( الدينونة ) from the Arabic word “dana” ( دان ) – “din” ( دين ) (religion) and “madinah” means city.

• Tamaddun from the Islamic perspective has the element of (din) religion embedded in it. If it is not founded upon the spirit of Islam, then such a civilization is not an Islamic Civilization.

• Civilizations composed of two components, internal and external.

• The external component is referred to the physical achievement of the civilization as building, sophisticated equipment and machineries, architecture etc.
• The internal refers to the moral and ethical values, the spiritual and religious foundation that served as the basis of the civilization.

• Each civilization has a body and a soul.

• The body - material achievement such as buildings, factories machines and all that is related to the various and luxurious pleasures of worldly life.

• The soul - the set of ideologies, concepts, moral value, manners and traditions that are embodied in the behavior of individuals, groups and their interrelations.

• What is Culture?
• Bennabi sees culture as consisting of two aspects: material and adaptive.

• While material culture includes the material objects, the means of action and its products.

• Adaptive culture comprises the non-material things of social life such as beliefs, ideas and concepts, language and customs.

The Characteristics of Civilization.

• The Characteristics of Civilization:
• Unity
• Rationality
• Tolerance
• Balanced and Integrated civilization
• Needed to further Islamic awakening and work with seriousness and determination.
• Integration between science and faith in Islam

• Unity (Tawhid)

• Unity of faith, religion, purpose, unity of mankind and unity of the final destiny.

• No civilization without unity such as unity of faith, religion etc. .

• The constitute elements, whether material, structural or relational or integral are an bound by tauhid in Islam.

• Tauhid or ultimacy of Allah implies that Allah s.w.t is worthy of worship of service. A person should lead his faith, actions and lifestyle according to this principle.

• Rationalism

• Constitutive of the essence of Islamic civilization.

• - It consists of 3 rules or laws:

1. Rejection of all that does not correspond with reality.

• Muslim must be willing to reject old practices, ideas and opinions which do not have sound and solid argument

2. Denial of ultimate contradictories

3. Openness to new approach, protects him against fanaticism, conservatism.

• Must be willing to explore new ideas, approaches within framework of syariah and should not be rigid.

• Tolerance

• Means the acceptance of the present until its falsehood has been established

Tolerance in worship, religion and its functions, service of man and having interaction between one to another.

Balanced and Integrated Civilization Project with identity and Mission

• Balance means following a middle course between 2 extremes of action.

• This also means “the righteous way”

• “Middle course” which should not transgress or fall short in the balance as Allah states. Allah says

• وَالسَّمَاءَ رَفَعَهَا وَوَضَعَ الْمِيزَانَ(7)أَلَّا تَطْغَوْا فِي الْمِيزَانِ(8)وَأَقِيمُوا الْوَزْنَ بِالْقِسْطِ وَلَا تُخْسِرُوا الْمِيزَانَ(9)

• Transgression -the tendency towards excessiveness.

• To fall in the balance - the tendency towards negligence.

• Balanced should be in faith, actions, religion, worship, dealing, services, social interaction and other aspects of life.

• Allah swt says :

• كُنْتُمْ خَيْرَ أُمَّةٍ أُخْرِجَتْ لِلنَّاسِ تَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَتَنْهَوْنَ عَنْ الْمُنكَرِ وَتُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَلَوْ آمَنَ أَهْلُ الْكِتَابِ لَكَانَ خَيْرًا لَهُمْ مِنْهُمْ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَأَكْثَرُهُمْ الْفَاسِقُونَ(110)

• Integrated civilization project means spiritual, material, cultural and moral dimension, pertaining to worldly life and here after as well as science and faith.

• Islam emphasized of the purity of means it implies in parallel with the nobility of the end and never accepts noble ends through impure or dirty means.

• It rejects achieving truth trough falsehood, even establishing mosque and school.

Needed to further Islamic awakening and to work with seriousness and from determination.

• -Transforming the Islamic nation from weakness to power
• - from poverty to prosperity
• -from chaos to system
• -from jester to seriousness

• -from destruction to construction

• -from disintegration to supporting and co-operation on goodness and piety.

• -from financial under development to integrated progress(material & moral

• Awakening is able to do more in recruiting its abilities and potentialities for active work. Allah says (surah al-Ra’d : 11)

• إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُغَيِّرُ مَا بِقَوْمٍ حَتَّى يُغَيِّرُوا مَا بِأَنفُسِهِمْ

Integration between science and faith in Islam

Humanity need a new civilization, which has a different philosophy and message from western civilization:

- To restore its faith in Allah, His message, day of reckoning, His Justice and the sublime value without which man loses his humanity and life.

• Encompasses all things man craves, religion, science, faith, reason. Spirit and matter.

• Man’s way to paradise and guide him to avoid the way of hell.

• To enjoy his life to the fullest with the limitations.

• Man is guided by the light of both divine truth and human intellect.

• In this civilization man should have a feeling that Allah is the All knowing, All wise , who knows everything.
Rise and Fall of Islamic Civilization

Rise and Fall of Islamic Civilization :
• i. Seven Stages to Process of Rise and Fall

• ii. Factors Behind Rise and Falls

• ii. Fall of Islamic Civilization from the Quranic perspective

Seven Stages to Process of Rise and Fall
• Seven Stages to Process of Rise and Fall

• Mixture
• Gestation
• Expansion
• Age of conflict
• Universal empire
• Decay
• Invasion

Seven Stages to Process of Rise and Fall
• Mixture

• Period of Mecca (13 years) & beginning of Medina.

• Emphasized on Aqidah and demolished syirik towards Allah swt.

• Allah didn’t revealed them with specific rituals comprehensively
(such as obligations- duties and rights- , economic, law & legislative, politic, etc)

• Gestation

• Period of Medina (10 years) – The life of prophet s.a.w & Abu Bakr al-Siddiq

• Muslim were struggling to form laws & organize people under the banner of Islam.

• Performed Islamic missionary (dakwah) & jihad among Arabs.

• Expansion

• Period of Umar al-khattab & Uthman ibn Affan

• When they started to extend the Muslim for spreading Islamic Hukumah (Islamic State)

• Arab & non Arab converted to Islam

• Age of Conflict

• Period of Uthman, the period of Ali & the period of the beginning of Umayyad.
• Because :
– Of misunderstanding between Uthman and other companions.
– Misunderstanding between Ali and Aisyah, Ali and Muawiyah and so on
• Appeared groups - syiah, khawarij, etc

• Universal Empire
• Period of the Ummayad, Abbasid ,Ottoman Empire and also Mughul Empire

• Built Islamic civilization & culture – knowledge, scientific knowledge, human sciences, etc. e.g:Baitul Hikmah (Baghdad)

• Muslim contributions on natural sciences, human siences & law and jurisprudence

• Invasion

• From the end of the Ottoman Caliphate to the contemporary time, where Muslims are victimized by superpower.

• Among Muslims : conflict, disunity, etc

The main process of rise and fall can be concluded into three era;

i. Rise Golden Age from 8th – 11 Century.
ii. Decline and Fall Era : 12 century
iii. To rise again / Renaissance – 19 Century

Factors Behind Rise and Fall

Factors of Rise :

• Inspiration from al-Quran
• Expansion of Islamic land
• The Role of khalifah in emphasizing on scholarly activities.

1) Inspiration from the al-Quran

• The Muslim were inspired through verses of Quran arguing them to think, reflect, ponder and investigate into the nature of universe and human life.

• Emphasizing of the importance of knowledge (96:1-5)

• Allah will raise up the ranks who have belief and knowledge (58:11)

• Islam is called the straight way and should not be regarded as something static, The instructions and guidance given in the Ouran are methods by which continuous progress can be achieved. (84:19), (19:36), (17:9), (11:56-57), (14:19)

• Islam cannot ever be obsolete, But it is true that Muslims will have to replace the naiveand superficial understanding of Islam with a deeper and more sophisticated one. They will have to transfer their attention from the forms to the essence, from the letter to thespirit, from the vessel to the contents.

2) Expansion of Islamic land

• In its early years, Islam spread rapidly. Within a century, Islam had conquered Persia, Palestine, Egypt, and had swept across North Africa and into Spain. The reason for this expansion were partly a matter of conquest, especially on the part of the Umavyad caliphs, who ruled from Damascus.

• Ability to transcend nations and races, its provision of a common language and its moral code which provided a great advance over tribal culture, assisting commercial relations, trade and trust between traders.

• They were faithful, committed and discipline Muslims practicing what they knew. They had a balance personality between the worldly and hereafter.

• People often described about themselves as “horseman by day and ascetics by night”.

3) The role of the Khalifah in emphasizing on the scholarly activities.

• The Abbasid dynasty, which ruled from Baghdad from 750 to 1258, provided the peak of Islamic civilization.

• Open intellectual environment of early Islam, gave rise to the wealth of its civilization.

• In the 9th century the collective sayings and interpretation of the early caliphs were recorded in the hadith. The Abbasid's greatest achievements were in the area of philosophy, science and mathematics.

• They studied, preserved and translated the Greek classics.

• The Muslim world is justifiably proud of its achievements in this regard. Muslim scholars provided major contributions to mathematics, algebra, trigonometry, chemistry, physics and medicine.

• Once they got in contact with other civilizations, they took knowledge translated them into Arabic, assimilated them within the framework of Islam, improvise upon them and transformed them to become knowledge based on certainty (which derived from the Quran)

Factors of fall :

• The Mongol invasions
• The closing of the door of Ijtihad
• Distinction and division between sciences
• Failure of continuing the strength of Islamic administration.
• The emergence of western power.

1) The Mongol invasions

• In 1258 Baghdad fell to the invading Mongols and the empire collapsed.

• The spread of the Black Death- the hosts of Chenghiz Khan through Hulegu’s Mongol forces, in their terrific inroad, destroyed the most important universities, massacred the learned men, and burned and plundered the city.

• AI-Mu’tasim, the last Abbasid caliph in Baghdad, was a weak leader and he proved no match for when they attacked Baghdad. After having laid siege to the city, the Mongols entered it in February 1258 and al-Mu’tasim together with 300 of his officials were murdered.

2) The closing of the door of Ijtihad

• The scholarly activities were fully stagnant as the Islamic scholars (ulama') of the medieval ages declared that the door of the Gate of Ijtihad (independent analysis by individual Islamic scholars) is closed.

• Strict criteria of Mujtahid were listed. As such no new interpretation is possible to be made and no Muslim is allowed to make new interpretation from those apart those already establish by previous scholars.

• At this period, the ulama' believed “that all possible human problems have been answered, and decreed that henceforth only education by imitation would be permissible").

• Thus, the codes of human conduct, covering all aspects of life, must only be examined according to four mazhabs or ‘schools’ of moral moral and legal interpretation developed by Imam Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali.

• At this point, a cultural shift began to occur. While Islamic scholarship stagnated and departed further and further from the Qur'anic spirit.

3) Distinction and division between sciences

• The emergence of distinction between the "religious sciences" ('ulum shar'ivah) or traditional sciences" ('ulum 'aqliyah) and the "rational or secular sciences" ('ulum 'aqliyah ) or ghayr shar'iyah)

• Within this distinction, the rational/secular science was placed as the "step child" of scholarly activities.

• Some might say: "since knowledge is vast while life is short, one must fix priorities, and these Will naturally be in favor of the religious sciences, upon whose acquisition one’s success in the hereafter depends•."

• Knowledge also divided into fard 'ain (the knowledge which every Muslim is obliged to pursue) and fard kifayh (the knowledge which should not necessarily be acquired by every individual but which must be known by certain members of the community).

• As a consequence of these distinctions, the scholarly activities were directed under the belief that the sacred sciences_(shar’iyah) are superior" to the profane sciences (ghayr shar'iyah which have been discovered either by reason (e.g. arithmetic), experiment (e.g medicine), and hearing (e.g. Ianguage).

4) Failure of continuing the strength in Islamic administration

• The early Islamic community failed to continue in its fullest strength. The institutional structure of Arabian society was too fragile to sustain the new principles of lslamic political and social organization.

• The prevalence of injustice, tyranny, corruption and all forms of moral degradation in the government's administration.

• Nepotism (reestablishing the hereditary kinship in governing the Islamic empire) emerged together with the weak leadership lead to the process of political democratization was suspended and the masses were excluded from political participation.

5) The emergence of western power

• The French Revolution was a critical development in 18th century Western history. This event stimulated the worldwide dissemination of the ideas of civil liberty human rights, and liberal democracy, which introduced a new way of life, based on secular ethics.

• This event was ironic; while the Muslims abandonment of religion led to the decline of Islamic civilization, the Western Enlightenment" emerged when European succeeded in their liberation from the religious domination of the Catholic Church.

• Western sciences then developed independently from the Church. Secularization took place as the Church's authority to regulate the "world" shrank.

• Reason and science became the gods of the Enlightenment thinkers.

• The Industrial Revolution emerged from a foundation of scientific discoveries.

• The emergence of western imperialism and colonialism.

Fall of Islamic Civilization from the Quranic perspective

Fall of Islamic Civilization from the Quranic perspective:

• The ignorance of small sins

2.Committing great sins by individual as well as leaders of the society with mentality of arrogance

3. Oppression and persecution ( zulm)

4. Luxurious life

5. Obsession with power, such as the nation of ‘Ad.

6. Moral decadence

7. Scale cheating in business or fraud in weight and measure

8. Lack of empiricism with reason in developing sciences, medicine, mathematics, geography.

• Lack of overall systemization .

• -The lack of comprehensive systemization in classical works of jurisprudence
• -The problem of analysis of the hadith
• - Lack of proper understanding
• -The effects of space time on concrete system
• - Lack of Muslim political thought

• -Lack of ijtihad
• -Lack of understanding of the nature of usul in the absence of necessary adjustment
• - Lack of Muslim educational system
• - Lack of Muslim military weapons.
• -Lack of availability of the best possible scientific and objective impute.

• See also :

• Civilization in the Book
• Islamic Civilization
• Appraising a Civilization
• Islamic Golden Age
• Caliph

• Wassalam .



• Methodology and scientific Methods
• The Inadequacy of Western Methods
• Methodology in Islamic Science
• The Principles of Islamic Methodology
• Importance of Islamic Research Methodology
• Islamization of knowledge
- Knowledge was once Islamized?
- History of Islamization of Knowledge
- Characteristics of Contemporary Knowledge
- Scholars on Islamization of Knowledge
-Methodology of Islamization the Knowledge

Methodology and The Study Scientific Methods

• Methodology is the field of scientific inquiry concerned with the examination of the method used in the study of natural and human phenomena.

• A scientific consists of a number of rules , a researcher must follow in the study of the subject matter of his research.

• Those researchers who apply scientific methods may claim that the knowledge produced by their research is scientific.

• That inquiries must always use methods currently acknowledged by scientific community as scientific, for it is quite legitimate for a researcher to use a new method, never used before, provided he can demonstrate its “soundness”.
• The determination of the soundness of scientific methods is the task of methodology.

• Methodology is thus the field of scientific inquiry into the justification, description and explanation of the rules and procedures which constitute scientific methods.

• As such, methodology is not confined to description of scientific procedures, but involves the analysis of the grounds which justify their use.

• This means that the study of methodology impinges on questions studied under the label of epistemology (the theory of knowledge).

The Inadequacy of Western Methods
• The inadequacy of Western methods by briefly pointing out their cultural specificity:

• 1. Ever since their early formulation in the works of Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes, modern Western methods have had an empiricist bias which culminated in contemporary times in the logical positivistic approach embodied in Western behavioralism.

• 2. Throughout the last centuries, Western scholarship was able to completely eliminate revelation as a source of knowledge, thereby reducing it into the level of mere fiction and myth.

• A Muslim scientists find it impossible to incorporate revelation into social scientific research by relying on modern Western methodology.

Methodology in Islamic Science
• Q : For so long we have succumbed to the notion that modern science has been created by means of a single methodology only (Scientific Method).
• Does the fundamental difference between the Islamic conception of methodology and the modern one (western methodology)?
• A : Yes, that fundamental differences remain.

• The “Scientific Method” was widely practiced in Islamic science is now a well-established fact in the pages of the history of science.

• -Prof. Nasr viewed as an independent scientific and intellectual tradition, is that there is no single method which is used in that science to the exclusion of other methods.

• Islamic science has always sought to apply different methods in accordance with the nature of the subject in question and modes of understanding that subject.

• Muslim scientist, in their cultivation and development of the various sciences, have relied upon every avenue of knowledge open to man, from ratiocination and interpretation of sacred Scriptures to observation and experimentation.

• Even in modern science itself, the idea of a single methodology alone as being responsible for its creation has been demolished by numerous works on methodology of science, which have appeared over the last decade or so.

• Instead, the idea of a pluralistic methodology has now gained wide currency among contemporary historians and philosophers of science.

• Some of them have gone to the extent of even accepting sacred Scriptures as in integral component of this pluralistic methodology.

• The fact is the realization that the creative process which has produced that science is far more complex than what has been popularized as the “Scientific Method”.

• The methodology of science in Islam is based on an epistemology that is fundamentally different from the dominant epistemology of modern science, which so far has remained largely unaffected by this new intellectual development,
• although an increasing number of scientists, historians and philosophers of science have spoken of the need for a new epistemological paradigm that can provide a coherent view of the world revealed by modern science.

• It is true to say that, as an empirical way of knowing things, the scientific method of modern science is hardly distinguishable from the scientific method of Islamic science.

• Also the pluralistic methodology currently accepted by certain segment of the scientific community does not encompass the totality of methodologies of Islamic science.

• Modern science cannot at one and the same time retain its present epistemology logical foundation and adopt revealed sacred Scriptures and intellectual intuition, as this term is traditionally understood, as part and parcel of its methodology, without falling into philosophical contradictions.

• In truth, the acceptance of one necessarily implies the rejection of the other.

• It is the aim of this part to discuss the principles underlying this relationship.

• In the light of these principles, it then becomes transparent why in Islamic science all of these different methods are considered as valid ways and means of knowing nature within their respective domains of applicability.

• These methods are not contradictory, but rather complementary means of realizing the final goal of the Islamic sciences,, which is itself derived from the twin source of Revelation and Intellectual intuition.

• Consequently, the different sciences based on these different methods of knowing are also seen to be in complete harmony with each other, and not as conflicting discipline with rival claim to truth
The Principles of Islamic Methodology
• i. The unity of Allah

• - Allah is the One
• - He is who created this universe
• - Sunnatullah (the patterns of Allah)
• - Good and bad only can be determined by God alone in His laws and rulings (syariah)

• ii. The unity of Creation
• a . Cosmic order
- - Allah is the creator of the universe
- - He alone determines the order of the cosmic and universe

- B. Kingdom of Ends
- - Allah created everything with specific measures and purposes .
- - All things in creation serve a purpose.It is never final and only ends in Allah.

• The unity of Truth and Knowledge

- Islam affirms the possibility of acquiring knowledge.
- Revelation is the prime source of knowledge. (al-Quran & Hadith)
- The senses and ‘aql as the tools for gaining knowledge.

• The unity of Life
• a. Vicegerency (al-Khalifah)
- To govern the world as a khalifah of God.
- Fulfill the “amanah” by follow Syariat and serve Him.

- b. Comprehesivenss (Syumul)
- Islam is the way of life ( ibadah, syari’at & akhlaq)

• The unity of Humanity

- All human being were created by the same Creator (Allah)
- No discrimination among them
- All are regarded are equal before the sight of Allah.
- The noblest is the most pious.

Importance of Islamic Research Methodology
Mohammad Rafiduddin :

• argues that Islamic research is response of Islam to the intellectual challenge of the age.

• Such research usually has a double function, either to refute directly or indirectly wrong philosophical ideas that have become prevalent at the time and have begun to have an adverse effect on the faith of Muslims or to affirm the truth of Islam and defend Islamic beliefs by making use of all the right philosophical ideas that are available at the time.

F.R Faridi :

• elaborates on the point by stating that the purpose of Islamic research is the acquisition of knowledge to seek the reality, recognize Allah and promote the good of humanity.

• Imad al-Din Khalil:

• Allah encourages Muslim to have an insight into the reality of their existence and their place in the cosmos.

• The Quran invites man to make use of all his senses to obtain unlimited data and use his reason to register, discriminate, accept or reject data with a view to reaching the truth.

• As far as research methodology is concerned, it can be defined as the “process of validation of statements, proposition and theories”.

• The selection of an appropriate methodology is of great importance since it often influences research result.

Islamization of knowledge (Integration)

• It was this division of scientific approaches into Sayr’i and secular, leading into educational and cultural dualisme in Muslim societies, which prompted the “Islamization of Knowledge” Project.

• The task of integration is by no means an eclectic mixing of classical Islamic and modern Western knowledge,
• but rather a systematic reorientation and restructuring of the entire field of human knowledge in accordance with a new set criteria and categories, derived from and based on the Islamic worldview.
- Knowledge was once Islamized?
• Q : Why do we need to Islamized knowledge today since when the Quran was revealed, all the knowledge had been Islamized?

• A : True, since the revelation of the Quran particularly with the surah al-’Alaq, knowledge was once Islamized but due to passage of time and with infiltration of foreign elements and ideologies into the Muslim world and Muslim minds,
• the Islamic elements had undergone severe changes and been influenced by various elements such as westernization and eventually secularization.

• As a result, the knowledge no longer confirm to the acceptable framework of Islamic worldview and Islamic concept of knowledge.

• This is particularly true with respect to acquired knowledge (fard kifayah) such as physical sciences (physics, chemistry, astronomy etc) and human social sciences (economics, politics, psychology, sociology etc)

• Revealed knowledge Revealed knowledge (ford 'ayn) though as a discipline of knowledge does not require Islamization for they are already Islamic in a sense,

• yet the man or the seeker of knowledge, if he himself is not fully Islamized in body and soul (mind),
• as in the case of the so-called ‘secular-minded’ or 'modernist' or 'liberal' Muslim man (to cite but a few examples) may ultimately project and interpret the fard ayn knowledge in a manner not befitting it and alien to the established Islamic worldview.

E.g - in biology:
• when we study about the creation of human beings, modern biology never leads us to God as the Creator of man but rather gives the credits to "Darwin's Evolution Theory".

E.g - In physics and astronomy,
• it never talks about the creation of the planets, stars, sun and moon and universe that points us to God but rather through the so-called "Big Bang Theory".

E.g. In economics :
• Adam Smith has propagated man as 'economic man' and should behave in a manner ‘to maximize pis profits and minimize his loss' and ‘his self-interest’ is the ultimate goal then he should pursuit as whatever expense.

E.g. In politics :
• Machiavelli for example taught us that ‘the end justifies the means’ which means that if the end is good and noble, whatever ways that one needs to take in order to achieve the noble aim would be all right and justified even at the expense of depriving other people's rights.
• The ethical questions such as oppression,justice, reasonable profit; societal interest etc, never• come to picture.

History of Islamization of Knowledge

• (1) lslamization of Pre-lslamic Knawledge

• As have been mentioned above, with the revelation of al-Quran, the knowledge of pre-Islamic was Islamized in the sense that al-Quran projects a new worldview alien to the prevailing' worldview of the musyrikun, attacking their fundamental beliefs which they have inherited from the forefather generation after generation.

• Al-Quran also introduced new meaning and concept to Arabic terms, which though might have already in existence during the Jahiliyyah period but connoted different meanings altogether.

• Certain words, as noted by Prof. al-Attas conveyed different concept and gain more important value that the others - contrary to the practice of the Jahiliyyah- such the word 'taqwa' (piety) is regarded as the most virtuous act and status from the sight of God in contrast to hilm (forbearance/gentleness) and muruah (dignity) which occupied the highest virtuous act in the Jahiliyyah era, though undoubtedly still important in Islam, but not superior than that of 'taqwa'..

• (2) Islamization of Greek Knowledge

• During the glorious days of Islamic Civilization, the knowledge from other civilizations such as •that of Greek (Hellenistic), Indians and perhaps Chinese too, have not only been translated into Arabic or other Muslim languages such as Persian and Urdu but also transformed totally to fit in within Islamic metaphysical framework or worldview.

• The process which had been conducted to a great extent by scholars like al-Farabi, al-Kindi, Ibn Rushd Ibn Sina and others, in the words of Prof. Nasr, involved the "digestion and integration, the expulsion of something which cannot be accepted, which is not in accord with that particular worldview of Islam".

• This process is what Islamization of knowledge is all about

• (3) Islamization of Contemporary Knowledge

• Similarly, in the case of the Western Civilization, the Latin West took the knowledge from Islam and transformed them into the part and parcel of Christian worldview by rejecting certain aspects of Islamic sciences which never took hold within the Christian citadel.

• In the beginning it was a process, which we could perhaps call 'Christianization' of knowledge or 'Westernization' of knowledge.

• Only later when the French and Industrial Revolution began in 17th century, knowledge and science started to be separated from the Christian Church, in a process what is termed as 'secularization' process.

• Consequently, the predominant knowledge of today or what sometimes people term as present day knowledge or contemporary knowledge is a kind of knowledge that has undergone the process of 'secularization'.

• As such the knowledge is sometimes called 'secular knowledge' too apart from popularly termed as the 'Western knowledge'.

- Characteristics of Contemporary Knowledge

• What is wrong with the present Western or secular knowledge?

• The present knowledge has certain characteristics. that do not conform to the Islamic worldview, for that reason they need to be Islamized as the following:

- reliance upon the powers of human reason alone to guide man through life therefore the other means of acquiring knowledge such intuition (which includes Revelation) is not acceptable;
- adherence to the validity of dualistic vision of reality and truth;
- affirmation and projection of a secular worldview
- espousal of the doctrine of humanism
- Scholars on Islamization of Knowledge
• There are many modem Muslim scholars who talked or discussed the problems of knowledge in the Muslim Ummah and some of them directly or otherwise mentioned about the need for an Is1amization of Knowledge :
- Muhammad IqbaI
- Fazlur Rahman,
- Syed Muhammad Naquib ai-Atlas,
- Ismail Raji al-Faruqi
- Sayyed Hossein Nasr
- Jaafar Sheik:Idris, etc.

• But only two of them. Prof. al-Atlas and Prof. al-Faruqi who came up with a very length and elaborative discussion on the concept of Islamization of Knowledge.

Methodology of Islamization the Knowledge

• All scholars generally agree that basically in order to Islamize knowledge:

• the first and foremost we need to Islamize the seeker of knowledge first, i.e. the man himself,

• only later then the respective discipline of sciences or knowledge (such as physics, biology, chemistry, psychology Sociology etc.) would possible be Islamized.

• As always reiterated by Prof. al-Attas that knowledge is not something outside yourself, but knowledge is something inside you which stems from the meaning of knowledge itself that is 'the arrival in the soul of the meaning (of the object of knowledge).

• In other words, the soul (in this case the mind) that first needs be Islamized failing which no matter how much the discipline of knowledge is Islamized, yet the understanding, interpretation of the knowledge is still not Islamic for it originates from unIslamic or secular mind of the man.

• Honestly, we have to admit that due to colonialism, many Muslim minds have been secularized as such they could not discern between what are knowledge that conform to the Islamic worldview and what are not

• For these kinds of people, their minds need to be Islamized first by restructuring and remoulding them to be in accordance with the Islamic metaphysical and philosophical framework or worldview.

• See also :

• The Methodological Basis of the Hierarchy of the Scinences

• Islamization of Knowledge : Problems, Principles and Prospective
(Ismail Raji al-Faruqi)
• Islam and the Philosophy of Science
(Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas)

• Wassalam